Anatomy A to Z; Types, Classification, Functions

Anatomy
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Anatomy  is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[rx] Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[rx] Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[rx] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine.[rx]

Anatomy: Lower Limb

skeleton of the lower limb >  pelvis

  • sacrum
  • innominate bones
    • ilium
    • ischium
    • pubis
  • pubic symphysis
  •  acetabulum
  • acetabular labrum
  • perilabral sulcus
  • acetabular notch
  • acetabular foramen
  • accessory superior acetabular notch
  • supra-acetabular fossa

Femur

  • calcar femorale
  • linea aspera

Patella

  • variants
  • bipartite patella
  • multipartite patella
  • absent patella
  • dorsal defect of the patella

Tibia

  • tibial plateau
  • intercondylar area
  • Gerdy’s tubercle
  • fibula
  • tarsal bones (mnemonic)
  •  calcaneus
    • peroneal tubercle
    • retrotrochlear eminence
    • sustentaculum tali
    • talus
    • navicular
    • medial cuneiform
    • intermediate cuneiform
    • lateral cuneiform
    • cuboid
    • variants

Tarsal coalition

    • talocalcaneal coalition
    • calcaneonavicular coalition
    • metatarsals
      • apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal
    • phalanges
      • symphalangism
    • ossicles of the lower limb
      • os acetabuli
      • os fabella
      • cyamella
    •  ossicles of the foot
      • accessory navicular
      • os peroneum
      • os subfibulare
      • os subtibiale
      • os trigonum
      • os calcaneus secundaris
      • os intermetatarseum
      • os supratalare
      • hallux sesamoid
        • multipartite hallux sesamoid
      • os supranaviculare
      • os vesalianum

Joints

  • hip joint
    • ligaments
      • iliofemoral ligament
      • pubofemoral ligament
      • ischiofemoral ligament
      • transverse acetabular ligament
      • transverse ligament of the hip
      • ligamentum teres of the hip
    • additional structures
      • hip joint capsule
      • zona orbicularis
      • iliotibial band
      • greater trochanteric bursa
    • ossification centers

Knee joint

  • ligaments
    • anterior cruciate ligament
    • posterior cruciate ligament
    • medial collateral ligament
    • lateral collateral ligament
    • meniscofemoral ligament (mnemonic)
    • posterolateral ligamentous complex
      • arcuate ligament​​​​
    • patellar tendon
    • anterolateral ligament
  • additional structures
    • extensor mechanism of the knee
      • fat pads
        • anterior knee fat pads
          • infrapatellar fat pad (of Hoffa)
          • posterior suprapatellar (prefemoral or supratrochlear) fat pad
          • anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad
    • groove for the popliteus tendon
    • ​knee bursae
    • knee capsule
      • knee synovial membrane
      • synovial plicae of the knee
        • ligamentum mucosum
    • lateral patellar retinaculum
    • medial patellar retinaculum
    • menisci
      • discoid meniscus
      • ring meniscus
    • pes anserinus (mnemonic)
      • pes anserinus bursa
  • ossification centers
    • tibiofibular joints
      • proximal tibiofibular joint
      • distal tibiofibular syndesmosis

Ankle joint

    • regional anatomy
      • medial ankle
      • lateral ankle
      • anterior ankle
    • ligaments
      • medial collateral (deltoid) ligament
      • lateral collateral ligament
        • anterior talofibular ligament
        • posterior talofibular ligament
        • calcaneofibular ligament
      • additional structures
        • flexor retinaculum
        • extensor retinaculum (mnemonic)
        • peroneal retinaculum
      • ankle bursae
        • retrocalcaneal bursa
        • subcutaneous calcaneal bursa
      • ossification centers of the ankle
    • variants
      • ball and socket ankle joint

Foot joints

  • subtalar joint
      • articulations
        • talocalcaneal joint
        • talonavicular joint
      • ligaments
        • interosseous talocalcaneal ligament
        • spring ligament complex
        • bifurcate ligament
        • cervical ligament
        • collateral ligaments
      • associated structures
        • tarsal sinus
        • longitudinal arch
        • transverse arch
    • mid-tarsal (Chopart) joint
      • calcaneonavicular joint
      • calcaneocuboid joint
    • tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint
      • ligaments
        • Lisfranc ligament
    • intermetatarsal joint
    • metatarsophalangeal joint
    • interphalangeal joint

Spaces of the lower limb

  • adductor canal
  • femoral sheath
    • femoral canal
      • femoral ring
    • femoral triangle (contents mnemonic | boundaries mnemonic)
    • foot subdivisions
      • hindfoot
      • midfoot
      • forefoot
    • popliteal fossa (mnemonic)
    • tarsal tunnel (mnemonic)
    • triangular space of cruciate ligaments

Muscles of the lower limb

  • muscles of the pelvic group
      • inner hip group
        • iliopsoas muscle
      • gluteal region
        • gluteal muscles
          • gluteus maximus muscle
          • gluteus medius muscle
          • gluteus minimus muscle
        • tensor fasciae latae muscle
      • lateral rotator group
        • piriformis muscle
        • superior gemellus muscle
        • obturator internus muscle
        • inferior gemellus muscle
        • quadratus femoris muscle
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Muscles of the thigh

  • anterior compartment of the thigh
    • sartorius muscle
    • pectineus muscle
    • quadriceps group
      • rectus femoris muscle
      • vastus lateralis muscle
      • vastus intermedius muscle
      • vastus medialis muscle
    • articularis genu muscle
  • posterior compartment of the thigh (hamstrings)
    • biceps femoris muscle
    • semitendinosus muscle
      • tensor fasciae suralis muscle
    • semimembranosus muscle
      • accessory semimembranosus muscle
      • semimembranosus bursa
  • medial compartment of the thigh
    • obturator externus muscle
    • gracilis muscle
    • adductor longus muscle
    • adductor brevis muscle
    • adductor magnus muscle

Muscles of the leg

  • anterior compartment of the leg
        • tibialis anterior muscle
        • extensor hallucis longus muscle
        • extensor digitorum longus muscle
        • peroneus tertius muscle
  • posterior compartments of the leg
        • superficial posterior compartment of the leg (calf)
          • triceps surae
            • medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle
            • soleus muscle
              • accessory soleus muscle
          • plantaris muscle
          • calcaneal tendon
  •  deep posterior compartment of the leg
    • accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle
    • flexor digitorum longus muscle
      • knot of Henry
    • flexor hallucis longus muscle
    • popliteus muscle
    • tibialis posterior muscle
    • lateral compartment of the leg
      • peroneus brevis muscle
      • peroneus longus muscle

Muscles of the foot

  • dorsal muscles
        • extensor hallucis brevis muscle
        • extensor digitorum brevis muscle
  • plantar muscles
        • 1st layer
          • abductor hallucis muscle
          • flexor digitorum brevis muscle
          • abductor digiti minimi muscle
        • 2nd layer
          • quadratus plantae muscle
          • lumbrical muscles
        • 3rd layer
          • flexor hallucis brevis muscle
          • adductor hallucis muscle
          • flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
        • 4th layer
          • dorsal interossei muscles
          • plantar interossei muscles
    • accessory muscles
      • accessory peroneal muscles

Vascular supply

  • arterial supply of the lower limb
      • common femoral artery
        • profunda femoris artery (mnemonic)
          • medial circumflex femoral artery
          • lateral circumflex femoral artery
            • descending branch of the lateral circumflex
      • superficial femoral artery
        • descending geniculate artery
      • popliteal artery
        • anterior tibial artery
          • recurrent tibial arteries
          • anterior lateral malleolar artery
          • anterior medial malleolar artery
          • dorsalis pedis
        • tibioperoneal trunk
          • fibular artery (peroneal artery)
            • peroneal magnus artery
          • posterior tibial artery
            • circumflex fibular artery
            • medial plantar artery
            • lateral plantar artery
              • plantar arch
  • venous drainage of the lower limb
    • deep system
      • common femoral vein
        • femoral vein
          • deep femoral vein
          • popliteal vein
            • peroneal vein
            • posterior tibial vein
            • anterior tibial vein
  • superficial system
    • great saphenous vein
      • dorsal venous plexus
    • small saphenous vein
      • vein of Giacomini
  • innervation of the lower limb
    • lumbar plexus (mnemonic)
      • femoral nerve
        • saphenous nerve
      • obturator nerve
    • sacral plexus
      • sciatic nerve (motor distribution)
        • common peroneal nerve
          • superficial peroneal nerve
          • deep peroneal nerve
        • tibial nerve
          • sural nerve
          • medial calcaneal nerve
          • medial plantar nerve
          • lateral plantar nerve
  • lymphatics
    • superficial inguinal lymph nodes
    • deep inguinal lymph nodes
    • popliteal lymph nodes

Anatomy: Abdominopelvic

  • skeleton of the abdomen and pelvis
    • lumbar spine
    • bony pelvis
      • innominate bones
        • pubis
          • pubic symphysis
          • obturator foramen
        • ischium
          • greater sciatic notch
          • lesser sciatic notch
        • ilium
    • sacrum
      • sacral hiatus
      • sacrotuberous ligament
      • sacrospinous ligament
      • greater sciatic foramen
      • lesser sciatic foramen
    • coccyx
      • anterior angulation of the coccyx

Muscles of the abdomen and pelvis

  • diaphragm
      • sternocostal triangle
  • anterior abdominal wall
    • Scarpa’s fascia
    • muscles
      • external oblique muscle
        • inguinal ligament
        • lacunar ligament
      • internal oblique muscle
        • conjoint tendon
      • transversus abdominis muscle
      • rectus abdominis muscle
        • rectus sheath
        • linea alba
          • umbilicus
        • arcuate line
        • semilunar line
        • transversalis fascia
      • pyramidalis muscle

Surface anatomy

    • posterior abdominal wall
      • psoas major muscle
      • psoas minor muscle
      • quadratus lumborum muscle
      • iliacus muscle
    • pelvic floor
      • levator ani muscle
      • coccygeus muscle
      • piriformis muscle
      • internal obturator muscle

Spaces of the abdomen and pelvis

    • anterior abdominal wall
      • sternocostal triangle
    • posterior abdominal wall
      • superior lumbar triangle
      • inferior lumbar triangle
      • iliopsoas compartment

Abdominal cavity

  • peritoneum
    • peritoneal ligaments
      • left triangular ligament
      • right triangular ligament
      • falciform ligament
        • umbilical vein
          • ligamentum teres
        • veins of Sappey
      • omentum
        • hepatogastric ligament
      • gastrosplenic ligament
      • splenorenal ligament
  • mesentery
      • small bowel mesentery
        • root of the mesentery
      • mesoappendix
      • transverse mesocolon
      • sigmoid mesocolon
  • peritoneal spaces
      • supramesocolic space
        • right supramesocolic space
          • right subphrenic space
          • right subhepatic space
            • anterior right subhepatic space
            • posterior right subhepatic space (Morison pouch)
          • lesser sac
            • epiploic foramen (of Winslow)
  • left supramesocolic space (left perihepatic space)
          • left subhepatic space
            • anterior left subhepatic space
            • posterior left subhepatic space
          • left subphrenic space
            • anterior left subphrenic space
            • posterior left subphrenic (perisplenic) space
  • inframesocolic space
    • inguinal canal (mnemonic)
    • Hesselbach triangle
    • umbilical folds
      • median umbilical fold
      • medial umbilical folds
      • lateral umbilical folds
  • retroperitoneum
    • perirenal fascia
    • anterior pararenal space
    • perirenal space
      • perinephric bridging septa (of Kunin)
    • posterior pararenal space
      • properitoneal fat
    • great vessel space
    • lateroconal fascia
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Pelvic cavity

      • pelvic peritoneal space
        • rectouterine pouch (pouch of Douglas)
        • rectovesical pouch
      • retropubic space (of Retzius)
      • paravesical space
        • lateral fossa
      • presacral space
      • canal of Nuck
      • pudendal canal
      • obturator canal
    • perineum
      • urogenital triangle
        • superficial perineal pouch
        • perineal membrane
        • deep perineal pouch
      • anal triangle
      • ischioanal fossa

Abdominal and pelvic viscera

    • gastrointestinal tract
      • esophagus
      • gastro-esophageal junction
      • stomach
        • rugal folds
      • small intestine
        • duodenum
          • Brunner gland
        • duodenojejunal flexure
        • jejunum
        • ileum
          • Meckel diverticulum
          • ileocecal valve
        • jejunum vs ileum
        • valvulae conniventes
      • large intestine
        • cecum
          • appendix
            • duplex appendix
        • colon
          • ascending colon
          • right colic flexure
          • descending colon
            • loop-to-loop colon
          • left colic flexure
          • transverse colon
          • sigmoid colon
        • rectum
          • mesorectal fascia
        • appendix epiploica
        • haustral folds
        • taeniae coli
      • anal canal
        • anal sphincters
  • Spleen
      • variants
        • splenunculus
        • wandering spleen
        • asplenia
        • polysplenia
        • splenogonadal fusion
        • retrorenal spleen
  • Hepatobiliary system
      • liver
        • beaver tail liver
        • ductus venosus
          • ligamentum venosum
        • porta hepatis
        • Riedel lobe
        • segmental liver anatomy (mnemonic)
        • supradiaphragmatic liver
      • biliary tree
        • common hepatic duct
        • cystic duct
          • ​common bile duct
            • ampulla of Vater
              • sphincter of Oddi
        • subvesical bile ducts
      • gallbladder
        • accessory gallbladder
          • gallbladder duplication
          • gallbladder triplication
        • gallbladder agenesis
        • Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
        • Phrygian cap

Endocrine system

  • adrenal gland
        • adrenal vessels
          • adrenal arteries
          • adrenal veins
        • chromaffin cells
        • variants
          • horseshoe adrenal gland
      • pancreas
        • pancreatic ducts
          • pancreatic duct diameter
          • variants
            • pancreas divisum
            • meandering main pancreatic duct
            • ansa pancreatica
            • anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction
        • variants
          • ectopic pancreatic tissue
          • annular pancreas
      • organs of Zuckerkandl

Urinary system

      • kidney
        • renal pelvis
          • extrarenal pelvis
        • renal sinus
        • avascular plane of Brodel
        • variants
          • number
            • renal agenesis
            • supernumerary kidney
          • fusion
            • horseshoe kidney
              • sigmoid kidney
            • crossed fused renal ectopia
            • pancake kidney
          • location
            • ectopic kidney
              • pelvic kidney
                • fused pelvic kidney
              • intrathoracic kidney
              • crossed renal ectopia
            • abnormal renal rotation
            • nephroptosis
          • shape
            • persistent fetal lobulation
            • hypertrophied column of Bertin
            • renal hilar lip
            • dromedary hump
            • faceless kidney
      • ureter
        • variants
          • ectopic ureter
          • duplex collecting system
            • Weigert-Meyer law
            • bifid ureter
            • ureteral duplication
          • retrocaval ureter
          • ureterocele
      • urinary bladder
        • detrusor
        • bladder neuroanatomy (micturition)
      • urethra
        • fossa navicularis
        • male urethra
          • verumontanum
          • prostatic utricle
        • female urethra
          • paraurethral glands
            • paraurethral ducts
      • embryology
        • metanephric blastema
        • ureteric bud
        • Wolffian duct
  • Male reproductive system
    • prostate
    • seminal vesicles
    • ejaculatory duct
    • bulbourethral glands
    • spermatic cord (mnemonic)
      • ductus deferens
      • cremaster muscle
    • scrotum (mnemonic)
      • dartos muscle
      • epididymis
      • testes
        • descent
        • tunica vaginalis
        • tunica albuginea
        • testicular appendages
          • appendix of testis
          • appendix epididymis
        • polyorchidism
          • bilobed testis
    • penis
  • Female reproductive system
      • vulva
        • mons pubis
        • labia majora
        • labia minora
        • clitoris
        • vestibular bulbs
        • vestibule of the vulva
        • vaginal opening
          • hymen
        • Bartholin glands
      • vagina
        • fornix
      • uterus
        • cervix
          • parametrium
        • chorion
        • placenta
          • basal plate
          • chorionic plate
          • variation in morphology
          • retroplacental complex
          • umbilical cord
            • Wharton jelly
        • variant anatomy
          • retroverted uterus
      • uterine tubes
      • ovaries
        • ovarian follicle
          • dominant ovarian follicle
          • primary follicle
          • secondary follicle
          • mature vesicular follicle
          • corpus luteum
          • corpus albicans
          • cumulus oophorus
      • broad ligament (mnemonic)
      • variant anatomy
        • congenital utero-vaginal anomalies
          • transverse vaginal septum
          • Mullerian duct anomalies
            • uterine duplication anomalies
              • uterus didelphys
              • bicornuate uterus
              • septate uterus
            • uterine agenesis
            • unicornuate uterus
            • arcuate uterus
            • T-shaped uterus
      • embryology
        • Mullerian duct
  • Blood supply of the abdomen and pelvis
    • arteries
      • abdominal aorta
        • inferior phrenic artery
          • superior suprarenal artery
        • celiac artery
          • common hepatic artery (variant anatomy)
            • hepatic artery proper
              • left hepatic artery
                • middle hepatic artery
              • right hepatic artery
                • cystic artery
            • gastroduodenal artery
              • right gastroepiploic artery
              • superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
            • right gastric artery
          • left gastric artery
          • splenic artery
            • left gastroepiploic artery
            • short gastric arteries
            • greater pancreatic artery
            • dorsal pancreatic artery
            • transverse pancreatic artery
        • superior mesenteric artery
          • inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
          • jejunal and ileal branches
          • ileocolic artery
            • appendicular artery
            • accessory appendicular artery
          • right colic artery
          • middle colic artery
        • middle suprarenal artery
        • renal artery (variant anatomy)
          • inferior suprarenal artery
        • gonadal artery (ovarian artery | testicular artery)
        • inferior mesenteric artery
          • left colic artery
          • sigmoid arteries
          • superior rectal artery
        • lumbar arteries
        • median sacral artery
        • common iliac artery
          • external iliac artery
            • inferior epigastric artery
              • cremasteric artery
            • deep circumflex artery
          • internal iliac artery (mnemonic)
            • anterior division
              • umbilical artery
              • superior vesical artery
                • deferential artery
              • obturator artery
              • vaginal artery
              • inferior vesical artery
              • uterine artery
              • middle rectal artery
              • internal pudendal artery
              • inferior gluteal artery
            • posterior division (mnemonic)
              • iliolumbar artery
              • lateral sacral artery
              • superior gluteal artery
            • variant anatomy
              • persistent sciatic artery
              • corona mortis
    • portal venous system
      • portal vein
        • splenic vein
          • inferior mesenteric vein
        • superior mesenteric vein
        • left gastric vein (coronary vein)
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Veins

  • inferior vena cava
      • hepatic veins
        • accessory right inferior hepatic vein
      • renal vein
        • ascending lumbar communicant vein
        • gonadal vein
          • pampiniform plexus
        • suprarenal vein
        • variant anatomy
          • retro-aortic left renal vein
            • double retroaortic left renal vein
          • circumaortic left renal vein

Common iliac vein

    • internal iliac vein
      • internal pudendal vein
      • obturator vein
      • prostatic venous plexus
      • vesical venous plexus
      • uterine venous plexus
      • vaginal venous plexus
    • external iliac vein

Variant caval anatomy

    • absent infrarenal inferior vena cava
    • azygos continuation
    • circumcaval ureter
    • circumaortic venous collar
    • Eustachian valve
    • left-sided IVC
    • IVC duplication

Anastomoses

    • arterio-arterial anastomoses
      • arc of Barkow
      • arc of Buhler
      • arc of Riolan
      • marginal artery of Drummond
    • portal-systemic venous collateral pathways
    • watershed areas
      • Griffiths point
      • Sudeck point

Lymphatics lymph node groups

      • para-aortic lymph nodes
      • pre-aortic lymph nodes
      • portal and portocaval lymph nodes
      • gastric lymph node stations
      • peripancreatic lymph nodes
      • common iliac lymph nodes
      • external iliac lymph nodes
      • internal iliac lymph nodes
    • cisterna chyli

Innervation of the abdomen and pelvis

    • lumbar plexus
      • subcostal nerve
      • Iliohypogastric nerve
      • ilioinguinal nerve
      • genitofemoral nerve
      • lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
      • femoral nerve
      • obturator nerve
      • lumbosacral trunk

Sacral plexus

    • lumbosacral trunk
    • sciatic nerve
    • superior gluteal nerve
    • inferior gluteal nerve
    • nerve to piriformis
    • perforating cutaneous nerve
    • posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
    • parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves

pudendal nerve

  • perineal branch
  • inferior rectal nerve
  • dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris
    • nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus
    • nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus

References

Anatomy

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