Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification

Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics, Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification, Rx Harun
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Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug. Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.

Antiviral drugs are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also termed antibacterial), antifungal and antiparasitic drugs, or antiviral drugs based on monoclonal antibodies. Most antivirals are considered relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections. They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body. Natural antivirals are produced by some plants such as eucalyptus.

Anti-herpetic agents

GenericBrand Name
AcyclovirZovirax, Sitavig
BrivudineHelpin
DocosanolAbreva
FamciclovirFamvir
FoscarnetFoscavir
IdoxuridineHerplex, Dendrid
PenciclovirDenavir
TrifluridineViroptic
ValacyclovirValtrex
PritelivirInhibitor of the viral helicase-primase enzyme complex, currently under investigation

Anti-influenza agents
GenericBrand Name
Adamantane Derivatives
AmantadineSymmetrel
RimantadineFlumadine
Neuraminidase Inhibitors
OseltamivirTamiflu
PeramivirRapivab
ZanamivirRelenza

Allylamines

Generic nameBrand name
AmorolfinLocery® (nail lacquer)
ButenafineLotrimin® Ultra (cream, spray), Mentax® (cream)
NaftifineNaftin® (cream, gel)
TerbinafineLamisil® (cream, gel, spray, solution, oral granules, tablets)

Allylamines are synthetic antifungals with activity against a wide range of dermatophytes. Allylamines act via inhibition of the squalene epoxidase formation, which blocks the synthesis of ergosterol.

Allylamines (with the exception of terbinafine) are used as topical treatments. Oral terbinafine is extensively used for the treatment of onychomycosis (fungal infection of the nail). It acts at an earlier stage by inhibiting the formation of squalene epoxide, a precursor of lanosterol. Oral terbinafine is the first choice for treating infections of fingernails and toenails

Azoles

Generic nameBrand name
Imidazoles
BifonazoleCanespor® (cream)
ButoconazoleFemstat® 3 (vaginal cream), Gynazole® 1 (vaginal cream)
ClotrimazoleCanesten ® (cream, solution), Clocreme® (cream), Cruex® (spray powder), Desenex® (cream) , Femcare® (vaginal), Fungoid® (solution), Gyne-Lotrimin® (cream), Gynix® (vaginal tablets), Lotrimin (cream), Mycelex® (solution, troches), Pedesil® (ointment), Trivagizole® (cream)
EconazoleEcoza® (foam), Spectazole® (cream)
Fenticonazole *Lomexin®, Gynoxin®
KetoconazoleNizoral® (oral tablets, cream, shampoo), Extina® (foam), Ketodan (foam), Kuric® (cream), Xolegel® (gel)
Isoconazole*Icaden®, Travogen®
LuliconazoleLuzu® (cream)
MiconazoleCavilon® (antifungal cream), Cruex® (spray), Desenex® (topical powder), Fungoid® (cream, tincture), Lotrimin® AF Athlete’s Foot Spray (deodorant powder, powder, liquid), Lotrimin® AF Athlete’s Foot powder, Lotrimin® AF Jock Itch spray powder, Micatin® (cream), Monistat® 1, Monistat® 3, Monistat® 7, Ting® (antifungal spray powder, spray liquid), Vagistat® 3, Zeasorb® AF (powder, lotion)
Omoconazole*Fongamil®
OxiconazoleOxistat® (cream, lotion)
SertaconazoleErtaczo® (cream)
SulconazoleExelderm® (cream, solution)
TioconazoleMonistat® 1 Simple Therapy, Vagistat® 1
TerconazoleTerazol® 3 (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories), Terazol® 7 (vaginal cream), Terconazole® (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories), Zazole® (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories)
Triazoles
AlbaconazoleUnder® investigation
EfinaconazoleJublia® (topical gel, solution)
FluconazoleDiflucan® (tablets, capsules, injection)
IsavuconazoleCresemba® (capsules, injection)
ItraconazoleSporanox® (capsules, oral solution, injection), Onmel® (tablets)
PosaconazoleNoxafil® (tablets, oral suspension, injection)
RavuconazoleUnder investigation
TerconazoleTerazol® 3, Terazol® 7 (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories)
VoriconazoleVfend® (oral suspension, injection)
Arylguanidines (Thiazoles)
Abafungin*Abasol® (cream, gel)
* Not available in U.S.
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Azoles (imidazole and triazole derivatives) are a large group of synthetic antifungal agents. Azoles are essentially fungistatic, and have a relatively broad antifungal spectrum. The azole antifungals have many drug-drug interactions because of their interference with cytochrome P-450 enzymes.

Imidazoles are considered first-line agents for most dermatophyte infections. Topical formulations are widely used for the treatment of superficial fungal infections and vaginal candidiasis. Imidazoles are very toxic when taken orally, so they are available only as topical formulations.

Triazoles are generally used for prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections and systemic mycosis.

Arylguanidines are a novel class of synthetic antifungal drugs.

Summary of the use of topical antifungals used in the treatment of tinea corporis, cruris and pedis

Polyenes

Generic nameBrand name
Amphotericin BFungilin® (lozenges, oral suspension)
NystatinNilstat® (oral drops, capsules, powder, tablets)
Natamycin (pimaricin)
Trichomycin (hachimycin)

The polyenes are naturally occurring compounds with a very broad antifungal spectrum. Polyenes act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, thereby interfering with membrane integrity and causing leakage of essential metabolites. Most polyenes are used topically, but intravenous amphotericin remains an important agent for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. The risk of nephrotoxicity limits the use of amphotericin B.

Echinocandins

Generic nameBrand name
AnidulafunginEraxisin® injection
CaspofunginCancidas® injection
MicafunginMycamine® injection

Echinocandins are the most recently developed class of antifungals. Echinocandins are used mainly for the treatment of severe, invasive Candida infections. Echinocandins are safer than other classes of antifungals and have a broad spectrum, and synergistic effect in combination therapy.

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Miscellaneous Antifungal Drugs

Generic nameBrand name
Thiocarbamates
TolnaftateTinactin®, Aftate®, Breezee®, Ting®
Antimetabolites
Flucytosine
Benzylamines
ButenafineMentax® (cream), Lotrimin® (cream)
Other antifungals
GriseofulvinGris-PEG® (tablets), Grifulvin® V (tablets), Grisactin®
CiclopiroxCiclodan® (cream, solution, topical suspension), Loprox® (cream), Penlac® (solution, nail lacquer), Loprox® (topical suspension, gel, shampoo)
Selenium sulfideSelsun®, Exsel®
TavaboroleKerydin®

Anthelmintics

Anthelmintics are agents that destroy or expel parasitic worms (helminths). Interestingly, most anthelmintics were developed for use in veterinary medicine.

GenericBrand Name
Bephenium
Diethylcarbamazine
IvermectinSklice, Stromectol, Ivomec, Mectizan
NiclosamideNiclocide
Piperazine
PraziquantelBiltricide
PyrantelAntiminth, Aut, Cobantril, Helmex, Lombriareu, Trilombrin
PyrviniumVanuin, Viprynium
Benzimidazoles
AlbendazoleAlbenza
FlubendazoleFluvermal
MebendazoleMebendacin, Mebutar, Nemazole, Vermox
ThiabendazoleFoldan, Mintezol, Minzolum, Triasox

Scabicides & Pediculicides

Scabicides are agents that kill scabies mites and mite eggs.
Pediculicides are agents used to kill head lice.

GenericBrand Name
Benzyl benzoateAscabiol
Benzyl benzoate/disulfiramTenutex
LindaneGBH, G-Well, Kwellada, Kwildane, PMS Lindane
MalathionDerbac, Ovide
PermethrinActicin, Elimite
Pediculicides (only for lice infestations)
Benzyl alcoholUlesfia
Piperonyl butoxide/pyrethrinsPronto Lice Kill System
SpinosadNatroba
Scabicides (only for scabies infestations)
CrotamitonEurax

References

  1. “A global view of hepatitis C: Physician knowledge, opinions, and perceived barriers to care”Hepatology57 (4): 1325–1332. doi:10.1002/hep.26246PMC 3683983Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics, Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification, Rx HarunPMID 23315914.
  2.  “New Hepatitis C Drugs Are Very Costly And Unavailable To Many State Prisoners”Health Affairs35 (10): 1893–1901. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0296ISSN 0278-2715.
  3. Summary of Recommendations for Patients Who are Initiating Therapy for HCV Infection by HCV Genotype | Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C”www.hcvguidelines.org.
  4. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir (Lexi-Drugs)”online.lexi.com.
  5. “Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Lexi-Drugs)”online.lexi.com.
  6. Hill, A.; Khoo, S.; Fortunak, J.; Simmons, B.; Ford, N. (6 January 2014). “Minimum Costs for Producing Hepatitis C Direct-Acting Antivirals for Use in Large-Scale Treatment Access Programs in Developing Countries”Clinical Infectious Diseases58 (7): 928–936. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu012PMC 3952605Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics, Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification, Rx HarunPMID 24399087.
  7. Times, Los Angeles. “The FDA can single-handedly reduce drug price-gouging. Why is it waiting?”latimes.com.
  8. “21 USC CHAPTER 9, SUBCHAPTER VIII: IMPORTS AND EXPORTS . §381”uscode.house.gov.
  9. NIH-Industry Partnerships Frequently Asked Questions | National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences”National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.
  10. Center for Disease Control. Understanding How Vaccines Work. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf Reviewed February 2013. Accessed 20 October 2016.

Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics, Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification, Rx Harun

Anti viral, Anti fungal, Anti helmintics, Anti viral,Anti fungal, Anti helmintics drug.The latest classification, Rx Harun

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