Antibiotic; Types, Indications/Uses , Side Effects, Interactions

Antibiotic
If this article seems to be helpful ,please rate us & share to others









User Review


5
(6 votes)


Antibiotic also called an antibacterial is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity.Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Sometimes the term antibiotic (which means “opposing life”) is used to refer to any substance used against microbes, synonymous with antimicrobial. Some sources distinguish between antibacterial and antibiotic; antibacterials are used in soaps and disinfectants, while antibiotics are used as medicine

New Antibiotics

ClassGeneric/Brand
LipopeptidesDaptomycin (Cubicin®), 2003
FluoroquinoloneDelafloxacin (Baxdela®), 2017
LipoglycopeptidesTelavancin (Vibativ®), 2009
Cephalosporin
(5th generation)
Ceftaroline (Teflaro®), 2010
MacrocyclicsFidaxomicin (Dificid®), 2011

ß-Lactam Antibiotics

Beta-lactam class of antibiotics includes penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems, all of which contain a β-lactam ring.

Penicillins

Antibiotics of the penicillin class are bactericidal and work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. Penicillins are among the safest antibiotics.

Major health concerns: hypersensitivity reactions.

GenericBrand Name
AmoxicillinAmoxil, Polymox, Trimox, Wymox
AmpicillinOmnipen, Polycillin, Polycillin-N, Principen, Totacillin
BacampicillinSpectrobid
CarbenicillinGeocillin, Geopen
CloxacillinCloxapen
DicloxacillinDynapen, Dycill, Pathocil
FlucloxacillinFlopen, Floxapen, Staphcillin
MezlocillinMezlin
NafcillinNafcil, Nallpen, Unipen
OxacillinBactocill, Prostaphlin
Penicillin GBicillin L-A,
Crysticillin 300 A.S., Pentids, Permapen, Pfizerpen, Pfizerpen-AS, Wycillin
Penicillin VBeepen-VK, Betapen-VK, Ledercillin VK, V-Cillin K
PiperacillinPipracil
Pivampicillin
Pivmecillinam
TicarcillinTicar

Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are mainly bactericidal and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Besides true cephalosporins (which are derived from cephalosporin C) this class includes oxacephems and carbacephems.

Major health concerns: platelet function abnormalities (rare).

GenericBrand Name
First Generation
Cefacetrile (cephacetrile)Celospor, Celtol, Cristacef
Cefadroxil (cefadroxyl)Duricef, Ultracef
Cefalexin (cephalexin)Keflex, Keftab
Cefaloglycin (cephaloglycin)Kefglycin
Cefalonium (cephalonium)
Cefaloridine (cephaloradine)
Cefalotin (cephalothin)Keflin
Cefapirin (cephapirin)Cefadyl
Cefatrizine
Cefazaflur
Cefazedone
Cefazolin (cephazolin)Ancef, Kefzol
Cefradine (cephradine)Velosef
Cefroxadine
Ceftezole
Second Generation
CefaclorCeclor, Ceclor CD, Distaclor, Keflor, Ranicor
CefamandoleMandol
Cefmetazole
CefonicidMonocid
CefotetanCefotan
CefoxitinMefoxin
Cefprozil (cefproxil)Cefzil
CefuroximeCeftin, Kefurox, Zinacef, Zinnat
Cefuzonam
Third Generation
Cefcapene
Cefdaloxime
CefdinirOmnicef, Cefdiel
CefditorenSpectracef
Cefetamet
CefiximeSuprax
CefmenoximeCefmax
Cefodizime
CefotaximeClaforan
Cefpimizole
CefpodoximeVantin
Cefteram
CeftibutenCedax
CeftiofurExcede
Ceftiolene
CeftizoximeCefizox
CeftriaxoneRocephin
CefoperazoneCefobid
CeftazidimeCeptaz, Fortum, Fortaz, Tazicef, Tazidime
Fourth Generation
Cefclidine
CefepimeMaxipime
Cefluprenam
Cefoselis
Cefozopran
CefpiromeCefrom
Cefquinome
Fifth Generation
CeftobiproleZeftera
CeftarolineTeflaro
Not Classified
Cefaclomezine
Cefaloram
Cefaparole
Cefcanel
Cefedrolor
Cefempidone
Cefetrizole
Cefivitril
Cefmatilen
Cefmepidium
Cefovecin
Cefoxazole
Cefrotil
Cefsumide
Cefuracetime
Ceftioxide
Combinations
Ceftazidime/AvibactamAvycaz
Ceftolozane/TazobactamZerbaxa
You Can Also Like   Ankle Strain; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Monobactams

GenericBrand Name
AztreonamAzactam, Cayston

Carbapenems

Carbapenems have incredibly broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Today these agents are among the most powerful antibiotics.

GenericBrand Name
Imipenem,
Imipenem/cilastatin
Primaxin
DoripenemDoribax
ErtapenemInvanz
MeropenemMerrem
Meropenem/vaborbactamVabomere

Macrolide Antibiotics

Macrolides are bacteriostatic drugs that inhibit protein synthesis by targeting the 50S subunit.

Major health concerns: erythromycin estolate is hepatotoxic.

GenericBrand Name
AzithromycinZithromax
Erythromycin
ClarithromycinBiaxin
DirithromycinDynabac
RoxithromycinRulid, Surlid
Ketolides
TelithromycinKetek

Lincosamides

GenericBrand Name
ClindamycinCleocin
LincomycinLincocin

Streptogramins

GenericBrand Name
PristinamycinPyostacine
Quinupristin/dalfopristinSynercid

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Aminoglycosides are rapidly bactericidal antibiotics which inhibit protein synthesis. These agents mainly interfere with proofreading process. Aminoglycosides are the only bactericidal class among protein synthesis inhibitors.

Major health concerns: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity.

GenericBrand Name
AmikacinAmikin
GentamicinGaramycin, G-Mycin, Jenamicin
KanamycinKantrex
NeomycinMycifradin, Myciguent
NetilmicinNetromycin
Paromomycin
Streptomycin
TobramycinNebcin

Quinolone Antibiotics

Fluoroquinolones directly inhibit the bacterial nucleic acid synthesis.

Major health concerns: QTc prolongation and/or torsade de pointes, tendonitis, tendon rupture, joint arthropathies.

GenericBrand Name
First Generation
FlumequineFlubactin
Nalidixic acidNegGam, Wintomylon
Oxolinic acidUroxin
Piromidic acidPanacid
Pipemidic acidDolcol
RosoxacinEradacil
Second Generation
CiprofloxacinCipro, Cipro XR, Ciprobay, Ciproxin
EnoxacinEnroxil, Penetrex
LomefloxacinMaxaquin
NadifloxacinAcuatim, Nadoxin, Nadixa
NorfloxacinLexinor, Noroxin, Quinabic, Janacin
OfloxacinFloxin, Oxaldin, Tarivid
PefloxacinPeflacine
RufloxacinUroflox
Third Generation
BalofloxacinBaloxin
GatifloxacinTequin, Zymar
GrepafloxacinRaxar
LevofloxacinCravit, Levaquin
MoxifloxacinAvelox, Vigamox
PazufloxacinPasil, Pazucross
SparfloxacinZagam
TemafloxacinOmniflox
TosufloxacinOzex, Tosacin
Fourth Generation
BesifloxacinBesivance
DelafloxacinBaxdela®
Clinafloxacin
GemifloxacinFactive
PrulifloxacinQuisnon
SitafloxacinGracevit
TrovafloxacinTrovan

Sulfonamides

Sulfonamides act by inhibiting the pathway that bacteria use to synthesize folic acid. Sulfonamides with trimethoprim produce synergistic antibacterial activity.

Major health concerns: hypersensitivity reactions, renal damage, crystal nephropathy.

GenericBrand Name
SulfamethizoleThiosulfil Forte
SulfamethoxazoleGantanol, Urobak
SulfisoxazoleGantrisin
Trimethoprim-SulfamethoxazoleBactrim, Bactrim DS, Cotrim, Cotrim DS, Septra, Septra DS, Sulfatrim, Sulfatrim-DS

Tetracycline Antibiotics

Tetracyclines are protein synthesis inhibitors primary targeting the 30S ribosome. They are essentially bacteriostatic.

Major health concerns: photosensitivity, deposition in developing bones and teeth.

GenericBrand Name
DemeclocyclineDeclomycin
DoxycyclineDoryx, Vibramycin
MinocyclineDynacin, Minocin, Monodox
OxytetracyclineTerramycin
TetracyclineAchromycin
Glycylcyclines
TigecyclineTygacil

Other Antibiotics

GenericBrand Name
ChloramphenicolChloromycetin
MetronidazoleFlagyl, Helidac, Metizol, Metric 21, Neo-Metric, Noritate, Novonidazol
TinidazoleTindamax
NitrofurantoinFuradantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin
Glycopeptides
VancomycinVancocin
TeicoplaninTargocid
Lipoglycopeptides
TelavancinVibativ
Oxazolidinones
LinezolidZyvox
CycloserineSeromycin
Rifamycins
RifampinRifadin
RifabutinMycobutin
RifapentinePriftin
Rifalazil
Polypeptides
BacitracinBaciguent
Polymyxin B
Tuberactinomycins
Viomycin
Capreomycin
You Can Also Like   Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder; Symptoms, Test, Treatment

Mechanism of Action of Antibiotics

Antibiotics like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that antibiotic interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Antibiotic a beta-lactam antibiotic similar to penicillins, inhibits the third and final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis by preferentially binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are located inside the bacterial cell wall. Penicillin-binding proteins are responsible for several steps in the synthesis of the cell wall and are found in quantities of several hundred to several thousand molecules per bacterial cell. Penicillin-binding proteins vary among different bacterial species. Thus, the intrinsic activity of  antibiotic as well as the other cephalosporins and penicillins against a particular organism depends on their ability to gain access to and bind with the necessary PBP. Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, it ability to interfere with PBP-mediated cell wall synthesis ultimately leads to cell lysis. Lysis is mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes (i.e., autolysins). The relationship between PBPs and autolysins is unclear, but it is possible that the beta-lactam antibiotic interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.      Antibiotic possesses activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The drug retains antibacterial activity in the presence of certain beta-lactamases, both penicillinase and cephalosporinase; however hydrolysis by other beta-lactamases, alteration of the PBP, and decreases permeability results in resistance to cefuroxime.

Indication of Antibiotics

For the treatment of many different types of bacterial infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, ear infections, skin infections, gonorrhea, and urinary tract infections.

  • Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
  • Bacterial infections
  • Bloodstream infections
  • Bone and joint infections
  • Gonorrhea
  • Impetigo
  • Pneumonia
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Skin or soft tissue infection
  • Skin and structure infection
  • Septicemia
  • Meningitis
  • Joint infection
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Surgical prophylaxis
  • Tonsillitis/pharyngitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Intra abdominal infection
  • Appendicitis
  • Wound infection
  • Lower respiratory tract infection maxillary sinusitis
  • Otitis media bacterial
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue bacterial infections
  • Pharyngitis
  • Bladder infection
  • Epiglottitis
  • Kidney infections
  • Otitis media
  • Peritonitis
  • Sepsis
  • Skin and structure /soft tissue  infection
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Bladder Infection
  • Acne
  • Bronchitis
  • Brucellosis
  • Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Chlamydia Infection
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Epididymitis, Sexually Transmitted
  • Gonococcal Infection, Uncomplicated
  • Helicobacter Pylori Infection
  • Lyme Disease, Arthritis
  • Lyme Disease, Erythema Chronicum Migrans
  • Lyme Disease, Neurologic
  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum
  • Nongonococcal Urethritis
  • Ocular Rosacea
  • Ornithosis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Pemphigoid
  • Pemphigus
  • Pneumonia
  • Psittacosis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Rickettsial Infection
  • Syphilis, Early
  • Syphilis, Latent
  • Tertiary Syphilis
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Contra Indications of Antibiotics

  • History of severe hypersensitivity (e.g. anaphylactic reaction) to any other type of betalactam antibacterial agent (penicillins, monobactams and carbapenems).
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Liver problems
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Antibiotic use should be avoided in pregnant or lactating women, and in children with developing teeth because they may result in permanent staining (dark yellow-gray teeth with a darker horizontal band that goes across the top and bottom rows of teeth), and possibly affect the growth of teeth and bones.
  • Usage during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of any major birth defects. There may be a small increased risk for minor birth defects such as an inguinal hernia, but the number of reports is too small to be sure if there actually is any risk.
You Can Also Like   Anorexia Nervosa; Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Side Effects of Antibiotics

The most common side effects 

More common

Rare

Drug Interactions of Antibiotic

Antibiotic may interact with following drugs, suppliments, & may change the efficacy of drugs

References

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Sharing to Spread to the World

11 thoughts on “Antibiotic; Types, Indications/Uses , Side Effects, Interactions”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.