What are the early signs of hepatitis B?

What are the early signs of hepatitis B?

What are the early signs of hepatitis B?/Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem leading to severe liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and Read More …

Gangrene Infection; Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Gangrene Infection

Gangrene Infection/Gangrene localized death of animal soft tissue, caused by prolonged interruption of the blood supply that may result from injury or infection. Diseases in which gangrene is prone to occur include arteriosclerosis, diabetes, Raynaud’s disease, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease), and typhus. It also may occur after severe burns, freezing, or prolonged bed rest (bed sores). Gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis Read More …

Antibiotic For Gas Gangrene, Causes, Symptoms

Antibiotic For Gas Gangrene

Antibiotic For Gas Gangrene/Gas Gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues. It can be caused by Clostridium, most commonly alpha toxin-producing C. perfringens, or various nonclostridial species.[rx][rx] The infection spreads rapidly as the gases produced by the bacteria expand and infiltrate healthy tissue in the vicinity. Because of its ability to quickly spread to surrounding tissues, gas gangrene should Read More …

What Is The Best Treatment of Wet Gangrene

What Is The Best Treatment of Wet Gangrene

What Is The Best Treatment of Wet Gangrene/Wet Gangrene is characterized by thriving bacteria and has a poor prognosis (compared to dry gangrene) due to sepsis resulting from the free communication between infected fluid and circulatory fluid. In wet gangrene, the tissue is infected by saprogenic microorganisms (Clostridium perfringens or Bacillus fusiformis, for example), which cause the tissue to swell and emit Read More …

Current Treatment Options For Penile Fractures

Current Treatment Options For Penile Fractures

Current Treatment Options For Penile Fractures/Penile fracture is defined as the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosum. Traumatic rupture of the penis is relatively uncommon and is considered a urologic emergency [rx]. The tunica albuginea is a bilaminar structure (inner circular, outer longitudinal) composed of collagen and elastin. Penile fracture has typical clinical signs reported as Read More …

How Does An Antioxidant Work?

How Does An Antioxidant Work?

How Does An Antioxidant Work?/Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. An antioxidant is a molecule Read More …

Fast Heart Rate, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Fast Heart Rate

Fast Heart Rate/Tachycardia conventionally but arbitrarily defined as an atrial and/or ventricular rate of >100 beats per minute, is encountered commonly and can be physiological or pathological in origin. Various adverse consequences from tachycardia have been recognized, and an important one is an association between persistent tachycardia and cardiomyopathy. Tachycardia also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.[rx] In general, a Read More …

What Food is High in Niacin, Vitamin B3

What Food is High in Niacin

What Food is High in Niacin/Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin belonging to the vitamin B family, which occurs in many animal and plant tissues, with antihyperlipidemic activity. Niacin is converted to its active form niacinamide, which is a component of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate form, NADP. These coenzymes play an important role in tissue respiration Read More …

What Plant Does The Devil’s Claw Come From

What Plant Does The Devil's Claw Come From

What Plant Does The Devil’s Claw Come From/Harpagophytum also called grapple plant, wood spider and most commonly devil’s claw is a genus of plants in the sesame family, native to southern Africa. Plants of the genus owe their common name “devil’s claw” to the peculiar appearance of their hooked fruit. Several species of North American plants in genus Proboscidea and certain species of Pisonia are however also known by this name. Devil’s claw’s tuberous roots are used in folk Read More …

Fluid Retention Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Fluid Retention Symptoms/Water retention or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body. Water is found both inside and outside the body’s cells. It forms part of the blood, helping to carry the blood cells around the body and keeping oxygen and important nutrients in solution so that they can be taken up by tissues such as glands, bone, and muscle. Even the organs and muscles are mostly water. The body uses a complex system of hormones and hormone-like substances called prostaglandins to keep its volume of fluid at a constant level. If one were to intake an excessive amount of fluid in one day, the amount of fluid would not be affected in the long term. This is because the kidneys quickly excrete the excess in the form of urine. Likewise, if one did not get enough to drink, the body would hold on to its fluids and urinate less than usual. Imbalances in this system can lead to water retention, which can range from mild and unnoticeable to symptomatic with swelling. Causes of Water Retention Where water retention occurs Fluid rich with oxygen, vitamins and other nutrients passes all the time from the capillaries (the smallest blood vessels) into the surrounding tissues, where it is known as tissue fluid or interstitial fluid. This fluid nourishes the cells and eventually should return to the capillaries. Water retention is said to occur as a result of changes in the pressure inside the capillaries, or changes that make the capillary walls too leaky (see edema and vascular permeability). If the pressure is wrong, or the capillaries are too leaky, then too much fluid will be released into the tissue spaces between the cells. Sometimes so much fluid is released that it cannot all return to the capillaries and remains in the tissues, where it causes the swelling and waterlogging which is experienced as water retention. Another set of vessels known as the lymphatic system acts like an "overflow" and can return a lot of excess fluid back to the bloodstream. But even the lymphatic system can be overwhelmed, and if there is simply too much fluid, or if the lymphatic system is congested, then the fluid will remain in the tissues, causing swellings in legs, ankles, feet, abdomen or any other part of the body. The Heart The pumping force of the heart should help to keep normal pressure within the blood vessels. But if the heart begins to fail (a condition is known as congestive heart failure) the pressure changes can cause very severe water retention. In this condition, water retention is mostly visible in the legs, feet, and ankles, but also collects in the lungs, where it causes a chronic cough. This condition is usually treated with diuretics, otherwise, the water retention may cause breathing problems and additional stress on the heart. The Kidneys Another cause of severe water retention is kidney failure, where the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluid out of the blood and turn it into the urine. Kidney disease often starts with inflammation, for instance in the case of diseases such as nephrotic syndrome or lupus. Once again, this type of water retention is usually visible in the form of swollen legs and ankles. Other Causes of Swollen legs Swollen legs, feet, and ankles are common in late pregnancy. The problem is partly caused by the weight of the uterus on the major veins of the pelvis. It usually clears up after delivery of the baby, and is mostly not a cause for concern, though it should always be reported to a doctor. Lack of exercise is another common cause of water retention in the legs. Exercise helps the leg veins work against gravity to return blood to the heart. If blood travels too slowly and starts to pool in the leg veins, the pressure can force too much fluid out of the leg capillaries into the tissue spaces. The capillaries may break, leaving small blood marks under the skin. The veins themselves can become swollen, painful and distorted - a condition known as varicose veins. Lack of exercise is a common cause of water retention because muscle action is needed not only to keep blood flowing through the veins but also to stimulate the lymphatic system to fulfill its "overflow" function. Long-haul flights, lengthy bed-rest, immobility caused by disability and so on, are all potential causes of water retention. Even very small exercises such as rotating ankles and wiggling toes can help to reduce it. Protein Protein attracts water and plays an important role in water balance. In cases of severe protein deficiency, the blood may not contain enough protein to attract water from the tissue spaces back into the capillaries. This is why starvation often shows an enlarged abdomen. The abdomen is swollen with edema or water retention caused by the lack of protein in their diet. When the capillary walls are too permeable, protein can leak out of the blood and settle in the tissue spaces. It will then act like a magnet for water, continuously attracting more water from the blood to accumulate in the tissue spaces. Other factors Certain medications are prone to causing water retention. These include estrogens, thereby including drugs for hormone replacement therapy or the combined oral contraceptive pill, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and beta-blockers. Premenstrual water retention, causing bloating and breast tenderness, is common and may be related to hormone imbalances promoted by a lack of nutrients such as B vitamins or magnesium. Medication-caused water retention Some medications can cause water retention, including Drugs that contain estrogen - These can reduce water retention. Examples include birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - These are medications with pain-reducing, fever-reducing effects. In high doses, they are actually effective in reducing inflammation. Examples include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Beta-blockers - These are used to treat abnormal heart rhythms and prevent tachycardias. Premenstrual water retention This can cause bloating and breast tenderness. Experts say this is due to hormone imbalances and some nutritional factors, including: Malnutrition and bad diet - A poor diet low in protein result in low levels of albumin, which may also play a part in developing water retention. Salt, or sodium - sodium-rich foods may cause water retention. Allergies - Some foods and insect bites may cause edema in susceptible people. Thyroid disease - People with a disorder of the thyroid gland commonly experience water retention. Symptoms of Water Retention Feet and lower legs get larger when you sit or walk. Take a look at your feet, ankles and hands.  Are they swollen?  When you press on the skin with your finger, is there an indentation that stays for a few seconds?  If so, you may have “pitting edema.” Hands feel tight when you make a fist Rings are too tight Abdomen appears to be swelling or distended Shortness of breath (especially when lying down) Weight gain Aching limbs Stiff joints Discolouration of skin Hypertension (high blood pressure) Diagnosis of Water Retention Testing For most people with widespread water retention, blood tests are done to evaluate the function of the heart, kidneys, and liver. Urinalysis is usually also done to check for large amounts of protein, which can indicate nephrotic syndrome or, in pregnant women, preeclampsia. Other tests are done based on the suspected cause. For example, in people with isolated leg swelling, doctors may do ultrasonography to look for blockage of a vein in the leg. [stextbox id='info'] Causes water retention Common Features Tests† Angioedema (allergic, idiopathic, or hereditary) Painless swelling, most often affecting the face, lips, and sometimes tongue Some times itching or tight sensation water retention that does not remain indented after being pressed Only a doctor’s examination A blood clot in a deep-lying vein in a leg (typically), an arm, or the pelvis (deep vein thrombosis) Sudden swelling Usually pain, redness, warmth, and/or tenderness in the affected area If the clot travels and blocks an artery to the lung (pulmonary embolism), usually shortness of breath and sometimes coughing up blood Sometimes in people who have risk factors for blood clots, such as recent surgery, an injury, bed rest, a cast on a leg, hormone therapy, cancer, or a period of immobility such as a long airplane flight Ultrasonography Chronic venous insufficiency (causing blood to pool in the legs) Swelling in one or both ankles or legs Chronic mild discomfort, aching, or cramps in the legs but no pain Sometimes reddish brown, leathery areas on the skin and shallow sores on the lower legs Often varicose veins Only a doctor’s examination Drugs (such as minoxidil, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogens, fludrocortisone, and some calcium channel blockers) Painless swelling in both legs and feet Only a doctor’s examination Heart failure Painless swelling in both legs and feet Often shortness of breath during exertion or while lying down and during sleep Often in people known to have heart disease and/or high blood pressure Chest x-ray ECG Usually echocardiography Infection of the skin (cellulitis) An irregular area of redness, warmth, and tenderness on part of one limb Water retention Sometimes fever Only a doctor’s examination Infection deep under the skin or in the muscles (rare) Deep, constant pain in one limb Redness, warmth, tenderness and swelling that feels tight Signs of severe illness (such as fever, confusion, and a rapid heart rate) Sometimes a foul discharge, blisters, or areas of blackened, dead skin Blood and tissue cultures X-rays Sometimes MRI Kidney disease (mainly nephrotic syndrome) Widespread, painless swelling Often fluid within the abdomen (ascites) Sometimes puffiness around the eyes or frothy urine Measurement of protein in a urine specimen Liver disease if chronic Widespread, painless swelling Often fluid within the abdomen (ascites) Causes that are often apparent based on history (such as alcohol abuse or hepatitis) Sometimes small spiderlike blood vessels that are visible in the skin (spider angiomas), reddening of the palms and, in men, breast enlargement and a decrease in the size of the testes Measurement of albumin in the blood Other blood tests to evaluate liver function Lymphatic vessel obstruction due to surgery or radiation therapy for cancer Painless swelling of one limb A cause (surgery or radiation therapy) that is apparent based on history Only a doctor’s examination Lymphatic filariasis (a lymph vessel infection due to certain parasitic worms) Painless swelling of one limb and sometimes the genitals In people who have been in a developing country where filariasis is common Examination of a blood sample under a microscope Normal swelling A small amount of swelling of both feet and/or ankles that occurs at the end of the day and resolves by morning No pain, redness, or other symptoms Only a doctor’s examination Pregnancy or a normal premenstrual symptom Painless swelling in both legs and feet Usually relieved to some extent by rest and leg elevation In women known to be pregnant or about to have a menstrual period Only a doctor’s examination Pregnancy, with preeclampsia Painless swelling in both legs and feet and sometimes hands High blood pressure (often new) Usually occurring during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy Measurement of protein in urine Pressure on a vein (for example, by a tumor, pregnancy, or extreme abdominal obesity) Painless swelling that develops slowly Ultrasonography or CT if a tumor is suspected *Features include symptoms and the results of the doctor’s examination. Features mentioned are typical but not always present. †In most people with water retention, doctors do a complete blood count, other blood tests, and urinalysis (to check for protein in the urine). [/stextbox] Treatment of Water Retention Non-medicine  In the acute, or early phase, remember PRICE P = Protection from further damage R = Rest to avoid prolonging irritation I = Ice (cold) for controlling pain, bleeding, and edema C = Compression for support and controlling swelling E = Elevation for decreasing bleeding and edema Protection can mean immobilization with a brace, or a wrap, or even just staying off the body part. Rest means not moving the body part in a painful way. Movement is good and can increase healing, but it should be pain-free at this stage. Ice for the first 72 hours - 20 minutes out of every hour. Leaving ice on longer actually reverses the effect it has, and may increase swelling. Chemical icepacks should never be applied directly to the skin, or frostbite can occur. Do not use heat for the first 72 hours; heat will increase the swelling. Compression - with an ace wrap. Your athletic trainer or doctor can show you how to wrap the body part to minimize swelling. Elevation - or resting with the injury above heart level, to encourage swelling to return towards the body, instead of collecting in the extremities where it is difficult to get rid of. Medicine of Water Retention Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Ibuprofen, Naproxen,  or Naprosyn Aspirin (also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin Talk to your child’s doctor before switching back and forth between doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. When you switch between two medicines, there is a chance your child will get too much medicine Elevate your feet as often as possible. (Either sitting in a chair with your feet on a stool with a pillow or in the bed or couch with feet up on two pillows) Do not stand for long periods of time. Avoid tight clothing (shoes, girdles, etc). Do not cross your legs. Reduce your salt intake if swelling is present. Avoid foods such as bouillon, potato chips, tomato juice, bacon, ham, canned soups, soy sauce, and table salt, for example. Try to eat a balanced diet (see eating well section). If your swelling is severe, consider wearing Jobst stockings or TED hose. Weigh yourself daily. Notify your doctor or health care provider if you have gained 5 pounds or more in a week. Take your medications exactly as prescribed. Home Remedies of Water Retention Dandelion Dandelions are very high in potassium that can act as a natural diuretic. A big reason why many of us suffer from water retention is that we eat a diet that is too high in sodium and too low in potassium. While sodium makes your body hold on to water, potassium encourages it to release excess fluids. Drinking dandelion tea can make you pee more often and reduce water retention. But the most effective way to use dandelion as a diuretic is to take concentrated dandelion supplements. Asparagus Asparagus has been used as a natural diuretic for centuries. This plant contains an amino acid called asparagine which is especially effective in treating water retention due to menstrual cycles and rheumatism. After eating asparagus, you might notice that your pee smells funny. This is because after you eat asparagus, it gets broken down into sulfur compounds that cleanse your body of toxins and makes you pee more frequently. Parsley Parsley is a popular medicinal herb and had extensive uses in traditional medicine. A herbal tea made by steeping fresh parsley leaves in boiling water was often used as a natural remedy to treat water retention. Studies on the diuretic effects of parsley conducted on rats did find that rats urinated more frequently after ingesting parsley. While studies on humans haven’t been conducted yet, there’s plenty of anecdotal evidence to support parsley’s diuretic powers. Caraway Caraway seeds are small, brown seeds that look very much like cumin. In Eastern traditional medicine, caraway seeds were often used to soothe digestive issues and reduce water retention. Studies conducted on rats found that after being fed caraway extracts, rats urinated a lot more frequently than usual. The lack of studies on humans, however, means that we don’t know just how much caraway is required to reduce water retention. You can start using caraway seeds by adding it as a spice to your meals or boiling it with water and drinking the tea along with the seeds. Tea Both green and black tea have strong diuretic properties that can help reduce water retention. However, it’s important that you drink it black and with no sugar as dairy and white sugar can aggravate water retention. Interestingly, studies have shown that tea is most effective as a diuretic when a person doesn’t drink it on a regular basis. Drinking tea everyday can make you develop a tolerance for it which can affect its diuretic properties. So if you’re a coffee drinker, it’s best you switch to tea on days when you feel extra puffy. Horsetail Horsetail is one of the most powerful natural diuretics known to us and is available in the form of a tea and as a supplement. One study found that taking horsetail supplements were as effective as certain commercial diuretics. But while horsetail can dramatically reduce water retention in the short run, it can cause harmful side effects if you use it for too long. Horsetail can also be dangerous if you already have kidney disease or diabetes. Cucumber/Tomato Cucumbers are almost entirely water themselves, so it isn’t surprising that eating them will make you pee more. Cucumbers contain sulfur and silicon which can help your kidneys function better and remove excess uric acid from them. They are also very high in potassium which helps your body release water. You can even use cucumbers topically to reduce symptoms of water retention. If your eyes get puffy when you have water retention, placing cool slices of cucumber over them can reduce the swelling. References [bg_collapse view="button-orange" color="#4a4949" expand_text="Show More" collapse_text="Show Less" ] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849969/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC438425/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3050523 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11805379 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13563995 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7922221  https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/187978.php https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/187978.php https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_retention http://www.cawcr.gov.au/staff/sbp/journal_articles/JClim_soilm.pdf [/bg_collapse]

Fluid Retention Symptoms/Water retention or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body. Water is found both inside and outside the body’s cells. It forms part of the blood, helping to carry the blood cells around the body and keeping oxygen and important nutrients in solution so that they can be Read More …

Conjunctivitis Treatment, Complication, Prevention

Conjunctivitis Treatment

Conjunctivitis Treatment/Conjunctivitis is any inflammation of the conjunctiva, generally characterised by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge. Treatment is often based on clinical suspicion that the conjunctivitis is bacterial, without waiting for the results of microbiological tests. In this review, therefore, we have distinguished the effects of empirical treatment from effects of treatment in people with culture-positive Read More …

How Much Does It Cost to Have Plastic Surgery

How Much Does It Cost to Have Plastic Surgery

How Much Does It Cost to Have Plastic Surgery/A new report from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) found that Americans spent $16 billion on cosmetic plastic surgery and minimally invasive procedures in 2016. Breast augmentation — more than 290,000 procedures at a cost of about $3,700 each. Tummy tuck — almost 128,000 procedures at around$5,800. Plastic surgery is a surgical Read More …

Penetration Wounds, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Penetration Wounds

Penetration Wounds/Wounds are defined as a disruption of the normal structure and function of skin and underlying soft tissue that is caused by trauma or chronic mechanical stress (e.g., decubitus ulcers). Wounds can be broken down into acute or chronic, and open or closed. Wound treatment is performed according to pathology, the extent, and circumstances of the lesions. To heal, Read More …