Vitamin B4 / Choline; Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefit

Vitamin B4 / Choline

Vitamin B4 / Choline  is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient. It is a constituent of lecithin, which is present in many plants and animal organs. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation(X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the head Read More …

Vitamin K; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefit

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for “coagulation”) and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other Read More …

Vitamin E; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefit

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. All eight feature a chromane double ring, with a hydroxyl group that can donate a hydrogen atom to reduce free radicals, and a hydrophobic side chain which allows for penetration into biological membranes. Both the tocopherols and tocotrienols Read More …

Vitamin D; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefit

Vitamin D; Types, Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from Read More …