Esophageal Thrush Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

Esophageal Thrush Symptoms

Esophageal Thrush Symptoms/Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients with impaired cellular immunity, and it is and the most common gastrointestinal (GI) opportunistic disorder among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [rx], [rx] However, we have sometimes come across EC in healthy individuals without HIV infection.[rx–rx] When EC has been found in healthy individuals, Read More …

Vitamin B Complex; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source

Vitamin B Complex/B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share similar names, they are chemically distinct compounds which often coexist in the same foods. In general, dietary supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific Read More …

Vitamin A; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefit

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamins A carotenoids (most notable beta-carotene). Vitamin A has multiple functions: it is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system and good vision. Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin, Read More …

Bethanechol; Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy

Bethanechol

Bethanechol is a slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension,[1] Bethanechol is a synthetic ester structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects, bethanechol is generally Read More …

Metoclopramide; Indications, Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy

Metoclopramide

Metoclopramide is a substituted benzamide and a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic effects. Metoclopramide exerts its prokinetic effect by antagonizing dopamine-mediated relaxation effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. This enhances the response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle to cholinergic stimulation, thereby leading to an increase of gastric emptying into the intestines. Metoclopramide may also strengthen the lower esophagus sphincter, thereby Read More …

Cefquinome; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side effects, Interaction ,Pregnancy

Cefquinome

Cefquinome is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefquinome binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial Read More …

Cefpirome; Uses, Contra indications, Dosage, Side effects, Interaction

Cefpirome

Cefpirome is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefpirome binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell Read More …

Cefozopran; Mechanism, Uses, Contraindications, Dosage, Side effects,

Cefozopran

Cefozopran is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefozopran binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell Read More …

Cefoselis; Mechanism, Uses, Contra indications, Dosage, Side effects

Repaglinide

Cefoselis is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-resistant, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoselis binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial Read More …

Cefluprenam; Uses, Contraindications, Dosage, Side effects, Interaction

Cefluprenam

Cefluprenam is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. It binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for Read More …

Cefepime; Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions

Cefepime

Cefepime is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefepime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell Read More …

Cefclidin; Mechanism, Uses, Contraindications, Dosage, Side effects,

Cefclidin

Cefclidin is a fourth-generation, parenteral cephalosporin with strong activity against glucose non-fermentative bacillus bacteria, but is ineffective against gram-positive cocci. Pharmacology of Cefclidin Cefclidin is a fourth-generation, parenteral cephalosporin with strong activity against glucose non-fermentative bacillus bacteria, but is ineffective against gram-positive cocci. Cefclidin is a fourth-generation, parenteral cephalosporin with strong activity against glucose non-fermentative bacillus bacteria, but is ineffective against gram-positive cocci. Cefclidin is a fourth-generation, parenteral cephalosporin with strong Read More …

Anticholinergic Drugs; Types, Indications/Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Anticholinergic Drugs

Anticholinergic drugs agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. These agents inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body. Anticholinergics are divided into three categories in accordance Read More …

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors; Types, Mechanism, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They have a long history of use as medications prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are particularly effective in treating atypical depression. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and several other disorders. Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) Read More …

Estrogen , Oestrogen; Types, Uses, Contra Indications, Side Effects, Interactions

Estrogen

Estrogen, oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. There are three major endogenous estrogens in females that have estrogenic hormonal activity: estrone, estradiol, and estriol. The estrane steroid estradiol is the most potent and prevalent of these. Estrogens are a pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically Read More …