Empagliflozin; Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

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Empagliflozin is a drug of the gliflozin class, approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults in 2014. Empagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate in the kidney. The glucuronic effect resulting from SGLT2 inhibition reduces renal absorption and lowers the renal threshold for glucose, therefore resulting in increased glucose excretion. Additionally, it contributes to reduced hyperglycemia and also assists in weight loss and blood pressure reduction.

Mechanism of Action of Empagliflozin

Empagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate in the kidney. The glucuronic effect resulting from SGLT2 inhibition reduces renal absorption and lowers the renal threshold for glucose, resulting in increased glucose excretion. Additionally, it contributes to reduced hyperglycemia, assists weight loss, and reduces blood pressure.

Indications of Empagliflozin

  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Empagliflozin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Empagliflozin is primarily used in type 2 diabetics to lower blood glucose levels. Empagliflozin in people with type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of heart attacks and heart failure
  • An adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • To reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) death in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established CV disease.
  • indicated for the treatment of adults with insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise
  • As monotherapy when metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance
  • In addition to other medicinal products for the treatment of diabetes
  • For study results with respect to combinations, effects on glycaemic control and cardiovascular events,
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Contra-Indications of Empagliflozin

Dosage of Empagliflozin

Strengths: 10 mg; 25 mg

Diabetes Type 2

  • Initial dose: 10 mg orally once a day in the morning
  • May increase to 25 mg orally once a day for patients tolerating therapy
  • Maximum dose: 25 mg per day

Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

  • Initial dose: 10 mg orally once a day in the morning
  • May increase to 25 mg orally once a day for patients tolerating therapy
  • Maximum dose: 25 mg per day

Side Effects of Empagliflozin

Most common

More common

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Less common

  • Abnormal stools
  • bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste
  • change in taste
  • difficulty with moving
  • discoloration of the fingernails or toenails
  • flu-like symptoms
  • joint pain
  • rash
  • a runny nose
  • sneezing
  • stuffy nose
  • swollen joints

Drug Interactions of Empagliflozin

Canagliflozin  may interact with following drugs, supplements & may decrease the efficacy of the drug

Pregnancy & Lactation of Empagliflozin

FDA Pregnancy Category C

Pregnancy

This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Lactation

It is not known if empagliflozin passes into breast milk. If you breastfeeding-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breastfeeding.

References

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

 

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