Apple Cider Vinegar; Types, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, Recipes

Apple cider vinegar
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Apple cider vinegar a vinegar made from apples  sugar and yeast[1] is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acidgive vinegar its sour taste.[2] Apple cider vinegar has no nutritional value, aside from some calories, with all nutrients at negligible levels.

One of the world’s most renowned home remedies, vinegar has always been praised for its powerful antioxidants and incredible antiseptic power. Apple Cider Vinegar for Health shows you how to use the all-natural product in your daily beauty and health routine, from crafting a wholesome weight-loss tonic to giving your skin a lovely glow. Featuring step-by-step instructions and plenty of helpful tips, this book provides 100 apple cider vinegar solutions that help. [3]

  • Control cholesterol and boost weight loss.
  • Relieve daily aches and pains, from muscle soreness to chronic headaches.
  • Treat unsightly blemishes, itchy insect bites, and sunburns.
  • Promote healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Apple cider vinegar

Types of Apple Cider Vinegar

The two popular types are

  • Organic Apple Cider Vinegar – It is made from apples that are allowed to ferment naturally without heat. Unlike commercial types, the organic variety is not processed or refined. It has a cloudy appearance because it contains the “mother” of vinegar. This type of vinegar is also called non-pasteurized, raw, or unfiltered apple cider vinegar.
  • Commercial Apple Cider Vinegar – This type of vinegar goes through a pasteurization process in which the vinegar is heated and filtered and sediments are removed if any. It also has a clear, amber appearance as the “mother” of vinegar is removed.[4]

Nutritional Value of Apple Cider Vinegar

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 88 kJ (21 kcal)
Carbohydrates
0.93 g
Sugars 0.40 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat
0 g
Protein
0 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%

0 μg

Thiamine (B1)
0%

0 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
0%

0 mg

Niacin (B3)
0%

0 mg

Vitamin B6
0%

0 mg

Folate (B9)
0%

0 μg

Vitamin B12
0%

0 μg

Vitamin C
0%

0 mg

Vitamin E
0%

0 mg

Vitamin K
0%

0 μg

Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
1%

7 mg

Iron
2%

0.20 mg

Magnesium
1%

5 mg

Phosphorus
1%

8 mg

Potassium
2%

73 mg

Sodium
0%

5 mg

Zinc
0%

0.04 mg

Other constituents Quantity
Water 93.81 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

  • Anti-infective Properties – The use of vinegar to fight infections and other acute conditions dates back to Hippocrates (460-377 BC; the father of modern medicine), who recommended a vinegar preparation for cleaning ulcerations and for the treatment of sores. Oxymel, a popular ancient medicine composed of honey and vinegar, was prescribed for persistent coughs by Hippocrates and his contemporaries, and by physicians up to modern day. The formulation of oxymel was detailed in the British Pharmacopoeia  and the German Pharmacopoeia, and, according to the French Codex (1898), the medicine was prepared by mixing virgin honey, 4 parts, with white wine vinegar, 1 part, concentrating and clarifying with paper pulp.
  • Cardiovascular Effects – Kondo and colleagues reported a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (approximately 20 mm Hg) in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats fed a standard laboratory diet mixed with either vinegar or an acetic acid solution (approximately 0.86 mmol acetic acid/day for 6 weeks) as compared with SHR rats fed the same diet mixed with deionized water. These observed reductions in systolic blood pressure were associated with reductions in both plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentrations (35% to 40% and 15% to 25% reductions in renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, respectively, in the experimental vs control SHR rats). Others have reported that vinegar administration (approximately 0.57 mmol acetic acid, orally) inhibited the renin-angiotensin system in nonhypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • Antitumor Activity – In vitro, sugar cane vinegar (Kibizu) induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells, and a traditional Japanese rice vinegar (Kurosu) inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. An ethyl acetate extract of Kurosu added to drinking water (0.05% to 0.1% w/v) significantly inhibited the incidence (−60%) and multiplicity (−50%) of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats when compared with the same markers in control animals. In a separate trial, mice fed a rice-shochu vinegar-fortified feed (0.3% to 1.5% w/w) or control diet was inoculated with sarcoma 180 (group 1) or colon 38 (group 2) tumor cells (2 × 106 cells subcutaneously). At 40 days post-inoculation, vinegar-fed mice in both experimental groups had significantly smaller tumor volumes when compared with their control counterparts. A prolonged lifespan due to tumor regression was also noted in the mice ingesting rice-shochu vinegar as compared with controls, and in vitro, the rice-shochu vinegar stimulated natural killer cell cytotoxic activity.
  • Blood Glucose Control – The antiglycemic effect of vinegar was first reported by Ebihara and Nakajima in 1988. In rats, the blood glucose response to a 10% corn starch load was significantly reduced when coadministered with a 2% acetic acid solution. In healthy human subjects, although the glucose response curve was not significantly altered, the area under the insulin response curve following the ingestion of 50 g sucrose was reduced 20% when coadministered with 60 mL strawberry vinegar. Several years later, Brighenti and colleagues demonstrated in normoglycemic subjects that 20 mL white vinegar (5% acetic acid) as a salad dressing ingredient reduced the glycemic response to a mixed meal (lettuce salad and white bread containing 50 g carbohydrate) by over 30% (P < .05). Salad dressings made from neutralized vinegar, formulated by adding 1.5 g sodium bicarbonate to 20 mL white vinegar, or a salt solution (1.5 g sodium chloride in 20 mL water) did not significantly affect the glycemic response to the mixed meal. Separate placebo-controlled trials have corroborated the meal-time, antiglycemic effects of 20 g vinegar in healthy adults.
  • Diabetes – What’s the most popular use for apple cider vinegar? If a simple internet search is any measure, it involves diabetes. Dietitian Carol Johnston has been studying the effects of the main component of any vinegar, acetic acid, on diabetic blood glucose levels since 2004. She’s conducted 10 small randomly controlled studies and published six papers on the subject.Her studies indicate vinegar can help lower blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes; in those who are prediabetic, also called insulin-resistant; and even in healthy control subjects. The improvement was slight for all but those at risk for diabetes, she says. In pre-diabetics, it was too good to be true,” says Johnston,who is also associate director of the Arizona State University’s School of Nutrition and Health. “It fell a good bit and stayed that way. It may be this is the group that could benefit the most.[22]
  • Weight loss The most cited study was done with 175 heavy but otherwise healthy Japanese subjects. The 12-week treatment produced lower body weight, body mass index, visceral fat, waist measurements and triglyceride levels. Sounds great, right? If you are using apple cider or other vinegars as one part of an overall plan, combining it with a healthy diet, portion control and exercise, it might help, Drayer says. She suggested using balsamic vinegar on salads, in a 4:1 ratio with oil, or adding it to sauces for poultry and fish. The best way to consume apple cider vinegar is on your salad, experts say.[23]
  • Teeth cleaning and whitening – Some people like to use it to remove stains and whiten their teeth, according to one of many online articles touting apple cider vinegar for this purpose. To try this, rub a small amount of apple cider vinegar onto your teeth with a cotton swab. You’re putting acid on your teeth, Boghosian continues, the last thing you’d want to do to promote oral health. What would be a healthier option is to brush your teeth twice a day for two minutes, with a whitening toothpaste with the ADA seal. Other articles promote rinsing your mouth with apple cider vinegar, soaking dentures with a diluted mixture or using it to clean a toothbrush. You just have to rinse off your toothbrush, get all the toothpaste out, and let it air out. Cleaning dentures or rinsing with vinegar is not a good idea. It too could put your teeth at risk. And just think how it might affect the metal on partial dentures. A pH of 7 is neutral, explains Boghosian; anything less is acid. She said many of today’s popular apple cider vinegar is in the 2 to 3 range about the same as stomach acid.[24]
  • Skin, hair and nails – Commonly suggested uses for apple cider vinegar across the internet include it’s usedas a treatment for skin infections and acne, fighting lice and dandruff, as a natural wart remover and as an anti-aging treatment. It might fade dark spots, or maybe you could use it as a skin toner if you dilute it a great deal. But I wouldn’t recommend it. We don’t usually suggest that to patients. Warts are caused by a virus, so there’s no cure. You can dab a diluted version of apple cider vinegar on a wart with a Q-tip, and it’s going to help remove dead skin, which is what we do in the office by paring it down, cutting it out or burning it with liquid nitrogen. But it’s not going to be as fast or effective as what we do in the office.[25]
  • All-purpose cleaner  – Because of apple cider vinegar’s antimicrobial properties, it is often suggested as a natural cleanser for the home. The acid is effective against mold, but according to the Pesticide Research Institute, an environmental consulting firm, so are salt, lemon juice, hydrogen peroxide, tea tree oil, and baking soda. Many of those also smell better.[26] Apple cider vinegar is biodegradable, and because of its low pH, it’s great against alkaline grime such as hard water and mineral deposits, as well as soap scum.That2000 study also showed vinegar to be quite effective against the waterborne bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mostly found in hospitals and untreated hot tubs. It was also effective against Salmonella choleraesuis, a rare pig-borne version of salmonella.
  • Food preservatives – Used for centuries to preserve everything from pickles to pig’s feet, vinegar is now becoming popular as a natural preservative in processed meat and poultry items as well.[27] Most home pickling uses 5% distilled white vinegar because it doesn’t affect the color of the vegetables or fruits, but apple cider vinegar is a popular choice due to its mellow, fruity flavor. Do know, however, that it will turn most fruits and veggies dark.[28] Another popular use for apple cider, and other vinegars, is as a food wash to reduce bacteria or viruses on the surface of fruits and vegetables. Studies have had varying results, often depending on the type of fruit or vegetable and the amount of time spent in the vinegar solution. Apple cider and other vinegar are used by some as a food wash to reduce the number of bacteria or virus on fruits or vegetables. After listing a number of studies and results, the US Food and Drug Administration sums it up: “Vinegar and lemon juice have potential as inexpensive, simple household sanitizers; however, possible negative sensory effects [color, odor], when used on produce, would be a disadvantage.
  • A cough and sore throat – The use of vinegar medicinally starts with the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates. He would mix it with honey and use it for chronic coughs and sore throats, and the suggestion continues today across the internet. Many parents might think this is a natural and safe option for their children. The American Academy of Pediatrics doesn’t have an official stance on the use of apple cider or other vinegar as a health aid, but spokeswoman Dr. Jennifer Shu urges caution. The University of Arizona’s Johnston cautions against trying any vinegar straight, due to the risk of inhaling the liquid and damaging the lungs. Vinegar has that strong smell and puckering taste, so if you take a breath, you could inhale it into your lungs as you swallow, she says. It can burn the lungs a little because it is an acid.
  • Heart disease and cancer – If you’re a rat worried about heart disease, put apple cider and other vinegar on your shopping list. Studies show the vinegar can reduce blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol in rodents fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet. But similar studies have not been conducted in humans.[33] Freeman, who serves on the American College of Cardiology’s prevention board, says there could be some benefit due to its antioxidant properties, like other heart-healthy fruits and vegetables, such as broccoli and blueberries. Freeman further recommends using apple cider or other vinegar on salads, to maximize the benefits and reduce any reactions to the acidity.[34] Japanese scientists have inhibited the growth of human leukemia and other cancer cells in Petri dishes by exposing them to sugar cane vinegar and Japanese rice vinegar.[35] Other studies showed a reduction in tumors and a prolonged life by adding rice vinegar to drinking water and food in rats and mice respectively.[35]
    Banishes Bad Breath – Bad breath could be one of the most embarrassing things one can ever experience. It hurts your self-confidence and makes you feel inferior to others. Apple cider vinegar is one of the few folk remedies for bad breath. This is because of the presence of malic and acetic acids, the acidic properties of which can create a hostile environment for the bacteria that cause bad breath.Also, ACV contains a rich mixture of minerals like potassium, sodium, magnesium, copper, sulfur, and calcium – all of which help support oral health. In addition, since ACV helps improve digestion, it banishes bad breath as well (as digestive problems can also result in bad breath).Apples are also known to cure bad breath because of their richness of fiber and crunchiness – two factors that help scrub away the food remnants in your teeth that might cause bad breath [36].
  • Naturally Whitens Your Teeth – ACV can act as a powerful cleansing agent. It not only helps remove stains on your teeth, but also kills the bacteria that cause certain gum diseases [37]. All you need to do is mix half a teaspoon of ACV with a cup of water. Gargle in the morning, post which you can brush your teeth as usual. ACV, as we have already seen, contains enzymes that foster the growth of good bacteria. And since it is naturally acidic, it breaks down the plaque stuck to the teeth.
  • Helps Treat Heartburn And Acid Reflux – Believe it or not, heartburn and acid reflux are often caused by too little stomach acid, not too much of it. ACV, being acidic, provides a similar acidic environment like the stomach and aids the breakdown of food. This can help treat heartburn or acid reflux. ACV also contains antimicrobial properties that can prevent certain intestinal issues that might cause acid reflux.
  • Has Antioxidant Properties – Apple cider vinegar is rich in certain bioactive compounds like acetic acid, catechin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, etc., which give it potent antioxidant properties [38]. These antioxidant properties prevent the detrimental effects of free radicals that can damage cell DNA.
  • Improves Nutrient Absorption – It’s all about nutrient absorption, isn’t it? If the nutrients in the food you intake aren’t properly absorbed, what’s the point? Proper stomach acid levels enable proper nutrient absorption. Apple cider vinegar also boosts metabolism, which ultimately results in proper nutrient absorption. The consumption of vinegar has also been found to increase the surface area of cells in the small intestine, thereby improving nutrient absorption [39].
  • Helps Treat Candida – Candida is a fungal yeast that lives on the surface of the skin. It thrives in an acidic environment that is often the result of poor nutrition. Apple cider vinegar, as we have seen, restores the pH balance in the body. It creates an alkalizing environment and promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria. This healthy bacteria helps cure candida. The rich enzymes present in apple cider vinegar regulate the presence of candida. As per a Brazilian study, the antifungal properties of apple cider vinegar can act against candida and offer therapeutic benefits [40].Apple cider vinegar can also help prevent osteoporosis. It is used alone or with honey for weak bones [41].
  • Helps Treat Acne – Did you know that our skin is naturally acidic? But, as we use harsh cleaners and soaps, this natural acidity gets disrupted. This destroys the acidic layer of the skin that offers protection against germs, bacteria, and pollution. The reason apple cider vinegar does a great job in treating acne is it restores the acidic layer. It also kills bacteria and removes excess dirt and oil.
  • Has Anti-Aging Properties – According to legend, Hippocrates, considered as the father of medicine, used apple cider vinegar as a healing elixir. Even the Parisians, by the turn of the century, used ACV as a healing tonic to preserve their youth. Apples are good sources of flavonoids, phytochemicals like quercetin and catechin, and carotenoids that exhibit excellent anti-aging properties.
  • Cures Cold – It is but obvious that cold is caused by microbes. When you add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a glass of water and consume it, you alkalize your body. This alkaline environment kills the microbes and relieves cold.
  • Cures Hiccups – Though not life-threatening, hiccups can surely be irritating. How ACV cures hiccups is quite simple – its sour taste distracts the mind, and this helps stop hiccups.
  • Treats Leg Cramps – Low levels of potassium can be one of the causes of leg cramps. Apple cider vinegar, being high in potassium, can alleviate leg cramps. As per certain naturopaths, apple cider vinegar, when taken with water and honey, can help treat muscle cramps. You can take a dairy-free diet without animal fat and with green salads, along with two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar diluted in water. This, when taken twice daily, can dissolve the acid crystals in the blood and treat leg cramps [42]. And in case apple cider vinegar is contraindicated for any condition you have, do consult your doctor before taking action in this regard.
  • Improves Hair Health And Appearance – Apple cider vinegar has multiple benefits for hair. Firstly, it improves the porosity (hair’s ability to absorb and maintain moisture) of your hair. It seals the cuticles and enables the hair to retain more moisture. But, keep this in mind – ACV can dry the hair out, so you need to use a moisturizer after using it [43]. Apple cider vinegar, when used as a follow-up to baking soda in a DIY hair treatment, reduces frizz and also seals the cuticles (44).You can use apple cider vinegar to treat dry ends as well (45). Just mix one part of ACV with two parts of water and massage your hair, avoiding the scalp. The only thing to make a note of is the smell of ACV might linger for a while.You can also use ACV after shampooing to remove the shampoo build-up (46). And if you include apple cider vinegar in your regular hair care regimen, you will soon enjoy softer and smoother hair (47).
  • Repels Fleas On Your Pets – Though apple cider vinegar doesn’t kill the fleas pestering your pets, it will offer an unpleasant environment that repels fleas. Yes, there are countless other flea-repelling products stocked on supermarket shelves. But hey, they contain chemicals. ACV works as a natural flea repellent. More importantly, it is easy to prevent fleas than to get rid of them. And this is where apple cider vinegar enjoys the upper hand. You can also add a teaspoon of this wonder vinegar to your pet’s food (1 teaspoon of ACV for every 9 kilos of your pet’s body weight). Adding the vinegar to your pet’s water is not advisable – your pet might dislike the water and consume less of it (48).
  • Works As A Natural Deodorant – Also, most commercial deodorants are antiperspirants. Now, what does that mean? They block your body’s ability to sweat. Sweating is your body’s natural way to detoxify, and blocking that ability means blocking the ever-important process of detoxification. Hence, once again, ACV wins as it neutralizes and absorbs stinky scents. All you have to do is rub a little amount of ACV on your underarms. It will absorb and minimize body odor. Don’t worry about the vinegary smell though – it dissipates as it dries.
  • Heals Poison Ivy – In case you don’t know (I definitely didn’t!) what poison ivy is, it is a North American climbing plant that secretes oil, which can cause dermatitis. Well, that’s what Google says. Anyway, the deal here is dermatitis can be pretty irritating. That might not be the case if you have ACV in your kitchen. ACV has a toxin-pulling ability that can suck the poison out of your skin pores. Simply apply a teaspoon of organic ACV to the infected areas. Reapply as needed.
  • Cures Warts – I know warts, by the way. Small overgrowths on the skin caused by a virus. But one doesn’t have to worry about them as our super cider knows a way around this skin condition. Just apply ACV to warts and cover the area with a band-aid. Leave it on overnight and remove in the morning. Repeat every day, and you will see results in a week or a little longer.As per an Arizona study, certain reports suggest that the topical application of highly concentrated acetic acid helps alleviate warts [49].

Recipes of Apple Cider Vinegar

1. As a tonic

What You Need
  • Your favorite fruit juice (preferably high in vitamin C), 250 ml
  • Apple cider vinegar, 2 tablespoons
Directions
  1. Add the two ingredients to a glass.
  2. Mix well and serve.

2. As a salad dressing

What You Need
  • Honey, ½ cup
  • Apple cider vinegar, ¼ cup
  • Extra virgin olive oil, ¼ cup
  • Mustard powder, 1 teaspoon
  • Dried basil, ½ teaspoon
  • One small minced shallot
  • Juice of 1 lemon
  • Salt and pepper
Directions
  1. Whisk together the honey, shallot, apple cider vinegar, mustard powder, dried basil, and lemon juice.
  2. To emulsify, pour in olive oil slowly while whisking.
  3. Season with salt and pepper.
  4. Pour into a jar with lid. Refrigerate.

3. As a marinade

What You Need
  • Garlic powder, ½ teaspoon
  • Sea salt, 1 teaspoon
  • Worcestershire sauce, 1 tablespoon
  • Red pepper powder, 2 teaspoons
  • Pure apple cider vinegar, 2 cups
  • Oil, 120 ml
  • Light soy sauce, 2 tablespoons
  • Hot sauce, 2 teaspoons
Directions
  1. In a glass jar, mix all the ingredients and shake well.
  2. Place the jar on the counter and let it be for an hour before using for the first time.
  3. You can use this to marinate meat or poultry for 3 hours.
  4. You can reserve a cup of marinade for basting.

4. As a cocktail

What You Need
  • Lemon juice, 2 cups
  • Water, 3 cups
  • Vodka, 120 ml
  • Honey, 6 tablespoons
  • Apple cider vinegar, 6 tablespoons
  • Fresh thyme, 6 sprigs
Directions
  1. Take a medium saucepan and add the honey, apple cider vinegar, and ½ cup of water to it. Heat it over medium to high heat.
  2. Stir constantly and bring to a boil. Turn off the heat.
  3. Add herbs and let it steep for about 3 minutes.
  4. Strain the mixture.
  5. When it is ready to serve, transfer this mixture to a larger jug or pitcher.
  6. Add the remaining water, lemon juice, and vodka. Mix the ingredients.
  7. Serve with ice. You can garnish with fresh thyme sprigs.

Most stores sell apple cider vinegar. There are various brands too. But not all would be the best. So, what can you choose?

References

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_cider_vinegar
  2. https://edition.cnn.com/2017/04/18/health/apple-cider-vinegar-uses/index.html
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464618300483
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1785201/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29091513
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28602743
  7. https://books.google.com.bd/books/about/Apple_Cider_Vinegar_For_Health.html?
  8. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/does-apple-cider-vinegar-have-any-proven-health-benefits
  9. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1050464817303388

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