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Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), also known as the mandarin or mandarine is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically, reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification.
Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid). The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp, so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree.
Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata), a non-climacteric fruit, is an economically important fruit worldwide. The mechanism underlying senescence of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. In this study, a gel-based proteomic study followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes involved in peel senescence in harvested mandarin "Shatangju" fruit stored for 18 days. Over the course of the storage period, the fruit gradually senesced, accompanied by a decreased respiration rate and increased chlorophyll degradation and disruption of membrane integrity. Sixty-three proteins spots that showed significant differences in abundance were identified. The up-regulated proteins were mainly associated with cell wall degradation, lipid degradation, protein degradation, senescence-related transcription factors, and transcription-related proteins. It is suggested that mandarin peel senescence is associated with energy supply efficiency, decreased antioxidant capability, and increased protein and lipid degradation. In addition, activation of Ca(2+) signaling and transcription factors might be involved in cell wall degradation and primary or secondary metabolism.
Nutritional Value of Mandarin Orange
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||223 kJ (53 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||1.8 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
- Cancer - Research has revealed that mandarins can lower the risk of developing liver cancer. The carotenoids present mandarin oranges due to high Vitamin A have shown to reduce the risk of liver cancer. Mandarin juice given to hepatitis C patients failed to develop liver cancer because of its high beta-cryptoxanthin content. Mandarin has a high level of limonene which has anti-cancer effects and also helps to prevent breast cancer.
- Vitamin C - Mandarins contain a high level of Vitamin C which provides a number of health benefits. Vitamin C helps to fight a number of unstable molecules in our body known as free radicals through its antioxidant properties. We all are aware of the fact that free radicals in the body can lead to infectious disease and cancer. The antioxidants present in mandarins disarm free radical and prevent cellular damage.
- Cholesterol Problems - Mandarins produce synephrine which curbs the production of cholesterol in the body. The antioxidants present in Mandarin help to lower bad cholesterol and promote good cholesterol. Mandarins combat the free radicals that oxidize the cholesterol which makes the cholesterol to stick to the artery walls. Further, they contain soluble and insoluble fiber like hemicellulose and pectin which prevents cholesterol absorption in the gut.
- Blood Pressure - Mandarins also help to lower blood pressure levels. They consist of nutrients and minerals like potassium that lowers the blood pressure. Mandarins keep the blood flow moves smoothly through the arteries which keep the blood pressure normal,
- Weight Loss - Mandarins are a substantial source of fiber. Fiber-rich foods keep the stomach full for a longer period of time and reduce the desire or need to eat more food, assisting in weight loss. Doctors have found that eating mandarin oranges benefits to lower insulin, thus instead of storing sugar and converting them to fats, it uses it as a fuel that leads to weight loss.
- Healthy Immune System - Vitamin C in Mandarin is instrumental in preventing cold and is vital for the proper functioning of a healthy immune system. Mandarins have anti-microbial properties that prevent wounds from getting septic and from viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Mandarins prevent spasm in the digestive and nervous system thus prevents cramps and vomiting. Mandarin is a natural blood purifier that helps to flush out toxins and unwanted substances from the body.
- Skin Health - Vitamin C present in Mandarin is very good for skin both when consumed internally and applied topically on the skin. Regular intake of mandarin juice makes the skin glow and improves the skin tone to a great extent. The antioxidants present in Mandarin protect the skin from harsh UVA rays and help the skin to resist the damage caused by the sun and free radicals. It also reduces the sign of ageing like wrinkles, fine lines and blemishes.
- Antioxidant - Mandarin comes packed with antioxidants. It can provide 80% of your total daily vitamin C requirement. They help neutralize the harmful toxic effects of free radicals. This makes your skin look younger and healthy.
- Glowing Skin - Mandarins come with a lot of dietary fiber. This makes it easy to cleanse the system. It flushes out all harmful toxins from one’s body. This gives a healthy and natural glow to your face.
- Improved Skin Tone - Mandarins are a good source of vitamin C and E. Both these are essential for a healthy looking skin. Regular intake of mandarins greatly improves the complexion. It also gives you flawless and blemish-free skin.
- Fights Wrinkles - Mandarins are popular for fighting signs of aging like wrinkles and fine lines. They can be either consumed raw or as juice and can be applied topically as well.
- Heals Wounds - Mandarin oil (extracted from mandarins) is found to be helpful in growing new cells and tissues. This helps in healing wounds faster.
- Oranges like other citrus fruits - are an excellent source of vitamin-C (provides 48.5 mg per 100 g, about 81% of DRI); Vitamin-C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the human body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood.
- Orange fruit - contains a variety of phytochemicals. Hesperetin, naringin, and naringenin are flavonoids found in citrus fruits. Naringenin is found to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, and immune system modulator. This substance has also been shown to reduce oxidant injury to DNA in-vitro studies. Total antioxidant strength (ORAC) of oranges (navel variety) is 1,819 µmol TE/100 g.
- Oranges also contain very good levels of vitamin-A - and other flavonoid antioxidants such as α and β -carotenes, β -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. These compounds have been known to have antioxidant properties. Vitamin-A also required for maintaining healthy mucosa and skin and essential for good eyesight. Consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps human body protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
- It is also a very good source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, pyridoxine, and folates. These vitamins are essential in the sense that the human body requires them from external sources to replenish.
Eating Tips And Recipes?
How To Select?
- Always look for unblemished fruits. These are good in quality.
- Look for glossy fruits when selecting.
- Weigh the fruit down with your hand. Always pick the heavier one.
- Heavy mandarins mean more juice.
- Never pick soft ones.
- Watch out for rotten fruits and those with cuts. Avoid them at all costs.
Mandarins are famous because of their low-calorie count and high content of essential nutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is best advised to eat at least 1-2 mandarins every day. Add it to your fruit salad. This will give your salad a much needed protein boost. It can also add a refreshing fragrance and taste to your sweet baked dishes.
Mandarin Orange Healthy Dessert
- 1 box sugar-free gelatin
- 1 cup of boiling water
- ½ cup cold water
- 1 cup drained mandarin oranges
- 1 cup of light whipped cream
- 1 cup low-fat yogurt
- 1 cup crushed pineapple in juice form
- In a dish, add gelatin and boiling water and keep stirring until gelatin is completely dissolved.
- Now add cold water and pineapple along with mandarin juice.
- Let it chill in the fridge until it is completely set.
- Now combine the light whipped cream and yogurt as well.
- Fold this well into the gelatin mixture.
- Let it chill for at least 3-4 hours.
- Once it is set well, cut into squares and serve.
Mandarin Orange Fruit Salad:
- 1 can of drained mandarin oranges
- 1 can of pineapple chunks
- 1 jar of maraschino cherries
- 1 cup of marshmallows
- 1 cup of flaked coconut
- 1 cup of sour cream
- Drain all the canned mandarins, pineapple chunks and cherries.
- Do not throw away the juice.
- You can store it for later use.
- Now combine these fruits with flaked coconut and marshmallows.
- Toss it well and mix.
- Pour in some sour cream and fold it in.
- Now let it chill in the refrigerator for few hours and enjoy this salad cold.
- You can sprinkle a little sugar to add sweetness.
- You may also add other fruits like seedless grapes.
- This delicious fruit salad can be enjoyed anytime, especially during summers.
Mandarins are fat free, sodium free, cholesterol free and saturated fat free as well. So eat as many mandarins as you want in a day.