Pomelo Fruits; Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, Recipes

Pomelo fruits
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Pomelo fruits are good sources of nutrition with an ample amount of vitamin C. Besides, the fruits are abundant in other macronutrients, including sugars, dietary fiber, potassium, folate, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, riboflavin and pantothenic acid []. However, secondary metabolites are an especially popular topic in the present research. These constituents, also known as phytochemicals, are small molecules that are not strictly necessarily for the survival of the plants but represent pharmacological activity. Citrus fruits contain a number of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, limonoids, carotenoids, phenol acids and essential oils. These active secondary metabolites show several bioactivities of vital importance to human health, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc.

Numerous studies have focused on pomelo fruits secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc.[2]

Nutritional Value of Pomelo Fruits

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 159 kJ (38 kcal)
Carbohydrates
9.62 g
Dietary fiber 1 g
Fat
0.04 g
Protein
0.76 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%

0.034 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
2%

0.027 mg

Niacin (B3)
1%

0.22 mg

Vitamin B6
3%

0.036 mg

Vitamin C
73%

61 mg

Minerals Quantity%DV
Iron
1%

0.11 mg

Magnesium
2%

6 mg

Manganese
1%

0.017 mg

Phosphorus
2%

17 mg

Potassium
5%

216 mg

Sodium
0%

1 mg

Zinc
1%

0.08 mg

[3]
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Health Benefits of Pomelo Fruits

  • Anti-oxidants - Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically derived from oxygen such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in living organisms by amount of metabolism pathways, while anti-oxidant system is able to defend against it to keep balance []. However, modern lifestyle involves a number of factors that may raise the level of ROS which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as aging, arthritis, cancer, inflammation, and heart disease, and cause oxidative stress. Citrus extracts such as Citrus karna peel extracts, Citrus limetta peel extracts and Citrus bergamia juice extracts were found to have potential antioxidant bioactivity []. Citrus fruits are reported to have a good anti-oxidant ability especially because of their phenolic compounds with poly-hydroxyl groups, including phenolic acids, flavonoids and their derivatives []. The primary anti-oxidant mechanisms of phenolic compounds are listed below:
    • Direct absorption and neutralization of free radicals [].
    • Inhibition of enzymes associated with ROS pathways: NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase [].
    • Enhancement of the activities of human anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc. [].
  • Boosts Immunity - Although a single serving is less than an entire fruit, considering how large it is, it isn’t a terrible idea to eat the entire fruit, considering that each fruit contains approximately 600% of your daily vitamin C requirement. [11] This major source of ascorbic acid has been used for generations in Southeast Asia as a quick immune system booster. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant to increase white blood cell activity and attack free radicals, which can damage the organs of the body. It helps to fight off infections that lead to colds, coughs, fevers, and serious symptoms or microbial, viral, and bacterial infections.
  • Anti-Tumor activity - Using a methonol (alcohol) based extract of the Citrus maxima leaves, scientists tested it on Swiss albino mice with tumors.Using a daily dosage of 200 and 400 mg of extract per kg of body weight, the mice were treated for 10 days, at which time they were killed and dissected so their tumors could be studied. The results? That was based on their tumor volumes, cell counts, body weights, and other health parameters. [12] , There are only a couple pieces of research on the topic of pomelo fruit and cancer. It’s only lab experiments and it’s far too early to know if it’s helpful. Please do not use it for cancer or any disease. [13]
  • Treats Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) - The vitamin C present in pomelos helps increase the acid levels in the urine and thereby, prevent the development of a urinary tract infection (UTI).
  • Aids in Digestion - Most fruits contain high amounts of fiber and pomelos are no exception. One pomelo (the edible flesh only), contains about 25% of your daily requirement of fiber. [14] This promotes healthy digestion and eliminates problems like constipation and diarrhea. High fiber content bulks up the stool, promotes smooth movement in the digestive tract, and stimulates the secretion of digestive and gastric juices to break down complex proteins which are difficult to digest. Although the food has high ascorbic acid content, it produces an alkaline reaction once digested. Pomelo is filled with dietary fiber which assists in preserving normal bowel motions and avoids hemorrhoids.
  • Regulates Blood Pressure - Pomelo is a very good source of potassium, roughly 37% of your daily requirement. Potassium is a vasodilator, meaning that it releases the tension in the blood vessels, and increases blood circulation and oxygenation in the organs. It also reduces the strain on the heart and lowers your chances of atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. Pomelo juice contains potassium that is a key nutrient for regulating blood pressure. Drinking the juice helps in keeping the body’s blood pressure in check and prevents hypertension.
  • Weight Loss - Both pomelo and grapefruit contain a “fat-burning enzyme” that can help you reduce weight. It is called carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and is not found in many foods. This enzyme can boost your battle against the bulge; many dieters, therefore, choose to include pomelo in their foods.
  • Prevents Cramping - Potassium, which pomelos can supply, is important for the fluid balance in the body. It is a key aspect of muscle cramping and stiffness. [15] Without proper levels of potassium, you will likely face cramps and become susceptible to pulled muscles and torn ligaments. Deficiency of fluids, dehydration and lack of electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, are the root causes of muscle cramps. Adequate intake of pomelo juice supplies your body with fluids and electrolyte, which are useful in preventing muscle cramps.
  • Improves Bone Health - Pomelos, with its potassium content, can aid in preventing osteoporosis and general bone weakness throughout the body. Potassium intake has been connected to bone mineral density as it helps to facilitate the uptake of other essential minerals for keeping the bones strong.
  • Anti-aging Properties - The high levels of vitamin C in the pomelo fruit act as antioxidants, which seek out dangerous free radicals. One adverse effect that free radicals cause is degradation of the skin, which results in signs of premature aging, like wrinkles, sagging skin, and age spots. [16] High vitamin C intake can prevent this, so eat some more pomelos! Pomelo also contains spermidine, a rare chemical that is actually found in human sperm, which has been closely linked to anti-aging properties as well.
  • Prevents Urinary Tract Infection - Urinary Tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects the urinary system that creates stores and removes urine. Increased consumption of pomelo juice helps to fight this particular frequent swelling in pregnant women. The Vitamin C present in pomelo increases the acid level in urine and shirks the development of bacteria in the urinary tract.
  • Promotes Healing - Wound recovery practice suggests recovering strength of wounded tissue by replacing the dead tissue with healthy tissue. Enzymes in Vitamin C helps in the development of collagen, a protein that fortifies skin making it skin flexible and initiating wound recovery.
  • Healthy Gums - Bleeding and loose gums might be a symbol of Vitamin C deficiency. Collagen development is not just essential for skin, but also essential for creating healthy and balanced gums and teeth. Pomelo helps to make the gums stronger and keeps teeth problems at bay.
  • Heart Health - Pomelo has a high content of potassium, which like Vitamin C plays an important role in supporting the heart. This essential mineral regulates blood pressure levels. Abundant in pectin, pomelo juice clears the arterial deposits accumulated in the body, thereby reducing the impurities and benefiting people with hypertension. Pomelo also reduces the cholesterol count in the body and promotes good cholesterol.
  • Prevents Anemia - Research has shown that Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron in body. Iron deficiency often leads to anemia i.e. shortage of blood in body. Having a diet rich in Vitamin C helps to combat iron loss and improves blood circulation.
  • Wards off Cold And Flu - Eating fresh pomelo fruit or drinking pomelo juice can help prevent toxins and free radical cells from building up in the body. Too many free radicals in the body can cause health conditions like cold, flu, asthma, bacterial infection, allergies and so on. Vitamin C is one of the nutrients which stimulates the action of antibodies and immune cells which guard the body against bacteria that cause cold and flu.
  • Fights Cancer - One of the talked about pomelo health benefits is that it fights cancer. The skin of pomelo is very rich in bioflavonoids, which fight cancer and help to reduce pancreatic, intestinal, and breast cancer. It also stops cancer from spreading by enabling the body to eliminate excess estrogen. Fiber present in pomelo protects from colon cancer.
  • Fights Aging - Pomelo, like grapefruits, contain spermidine, which protects the cell from processes related to aging and cell damage. It combats wrinkles and skin aging and makes the skin appear youthful, fair and soft. It not only removes free radicals that harm the skin, but also assists the body to boost the production of collagen. Pomelo juice has anti-aging properties that help in fighting the free radicals. It assists the body to produce collagen and combat the signs of aging, such as wrinkles. It is also known to contain traces of spermidine that helps to prevent cell damage. A glass of pomelo juice a day can surely give you glowing and youthful skin!
  • Prevents Osteoporosis - Uncontrolled osteoporosis can affect posture, bodily movements as well as flexibility. Treatment for brittle bones calls for a diet rich in calcium and minerals to encourage new bone development. The pulp of pomelo boosts bone health and decreases the potential risk of building brittle bones. Pomelo juice is known to be good for bones and lowers the risk of having weak and fragile bones. When physical exercise and calcium supplements are accompanied with the consumption of pomelo juice, your bones become healthy and strong.
  • Promotes Recovery of Wounds - Pomelo juice with Vitamin C content helps to heal the wounds. Vitamin C, along with enzymes, boosts the production of collagen that helps heal wounds.
  • Cleanses The Arteries - This sweet and sour juice contains pectin, which helps to remove unwanted elements from the artery, keeping it clean and unclogged. Also, the vitamin C content in pomelo juice ensures that the elastic nature of the artery is sustained
  • Aids Skin to Repair Itself - Pomelo repairs the cellular structure of the epidermis to optimize UV protection to keep sun damage at bay. The enzyme found in Pomelo fortifies the skin and initiates wound recovery, helping the skin to repair itself.
  • Cures Acne & Pimples - Regular consumption of Pomelo decreases clustering of melanin granules, reducing brown spots and pigmentation. Eating Pomelo also decreases sebum production in the skin to reduce acne and pimples.
  • Reverses Adrenal Fatigue - Pomelo helps to reverse Adrenal fatigue, a condition which causes severe hair loss in women. Adrenal glands are required for maintaining proper hormonal balance and encourage hair growth.

Other bioactivities of Citrus fruits reviewed from studies in latest 6 years

Bioactivities Components Sources Subjects Results Ref.
Hepatoprotective effects Citromitin, tangeretin, nobiletin C. depressajuice d-Galactosamine-treated rats Suppression on d-galactosamine-induced liver injury []
Limonin Citrusfruits d-Galactosamine-treated rats Attenuation of the markers of hepatic damage and hepatic inflammation
Suppression on oxidative stress and expression of TLR-4 but not TLR-2
[]
Anti-microbial effects Essential oils Three C.species (orange, lemon, madarin) from Spain Enterococcus faeciumStaphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella entericasubsp. enterica ser.Enteritidis Inhibition of spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms []
Naringenin Citrusfruits SalmonellaTyphimurium LT2 Attenuation of Salmonella Typhimurium virulence and cell motility []
Naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin Citrusfruits Escherichia coliO157:H7 and V. harveyi Affection on antagonists of cell–cell signalling
Suppression the biofilm formation
Alteration the expression of genes encoding type three secretion system in V. harveyi ( naringenin)
[]
Anti-allergic effects Hesperetin, naringenin Citrusfruits Rat basophil leukemia RBL-2H3 cells Inhibition of degranulation by suppression of pathway signals
Reduction the symptoms of allergy by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt
[]
Anti-melanogenesis effects Extract Unripe fruit of C.hassaku Cultured murine B16 melanoma cells, the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs Inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure
Prevention effects in vivo against UVB-induced pigmentation
[]
Anti-obesity anti-hyperglycemic effects Limonoid, nomilin Citrusfruits Mice fed a high-fat diet Mediation through the activation of TGR5 []
Anti-obesity effects Extract Peels of immature C. sunki High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes Elevation of β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue []
Polymethoxyflavones, coumarin derivatives Peels of Citrusfruits Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells Monitoring the prevention of accumulation of lipid droplets []
Inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis Alkaline C.reticulata Pulmonary fibrosis rats Inhibition of the proliferation of MRC-5
Prevention effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
[]
Anti-diabetic effects Extract Yuja (C. junosTanaka) pulp Mice fed a high fat diet Reduction the weight gain and the rise in liver fat content, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance
Reduction the secretion of adipocytokines such as leptin and resistin
Increase on phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle tissues
[]
Wound healing effects Extract C. tamurana Fibroblasts cells (TIG-119) Inhibition proliferation of TIG-119 cells at higher concentration (>1.0 mg/mL)
Exhibition linear and time-dependent cell proliferation at lower concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg/mL)
Acceleration the migration of cells towards the wounded region
[]
Antianxiety-like effects Chimpi Dried Citruspeels ICR male mice Possession a significant anxiolytic-like effect similar to that of fluoxetine

Traditional Uses of Pomelo Fruits

  • In Southeast Asia and Philippines, decoction made from flowers, leaves and rind are used for chorea, epilepsy and convulsive coughing.
  • Decoction prepared from hot leaf is applied for ulcers and swellings.
  • Seeds are useful for dyspepsia, coughs and lumbago.
  • In Brazil, gum which is exuded from declining trees is used as a remedy.
  • Leaves are used as aromatic baths in Philippines.
  • Juice extracted from fruit is used for ulcers, diabetes and mix with rock salt and black pepper for malaria.
  • The pulp with honey helps to enhance urinary flow.
  • In Nigeria, fruit is used for upset stomach, arthritis, gout, ulcer and kidney stones.
  • In Taiwan, it is used to promote circulation of blood and remove blood stasis in diseases.
  • This fruit is used for treating heart problems and stomach ailments.
  • Fruit pulp is used as a stomach tonic and appetizer.
  • The juice of the fruit is effective in lowering weight and also promotes reduction in cholesterol.
  • The peel of pomelo is used for beauty purposes.
  • Leaves are used for treating chorea, epilepsy, convulsive cough and stomach pain caused due to indigestion.
  • Rinds are used as a sedative in nervous affection, vomiting, diarrhea, griping of abdomen, eye troubles and headache.
  • Use the hot leaf decoction for ulcers and swellings.
  • In Malaya, painful swellings are treated with the lotion of boiled leaves.
  • It makes the bowel movements easier.
  • Boil four slices of pomelo without peel with 12 grams of astragalus and drink this mixture two times a day to provide relief from cough.
  • Boil the peel by adding sugar which provides relief from gas pains.
  • Heat the pulp of pomelo with rock sugar and take it three times in a day to provide relief from minor cough.
  • The daily intake of pomelo provides relief from sore throats.
  • Prepare pomelo and rice like a soup and take it three times in a day to provide relief from abdominal pains and indigestion.
  • Cure frost bites with the use of boiled peels.
  • Boil 3 to 10 grams of dried pomelo leaves and drink it once a day to treat diarrhea.
  • Apply the drops of crush fresh pomelo leaves to the infected ear by curing ear infections.

References

Pomelo Fruits

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