Health in This Winter
Immunity is the season’s magic word. When temperatures drop and windows and doors stay shut, viruses can thrive indoors; if your immune system isn’t up to the task, you’re likely to catch the latest bug to hit town. This means less energy, the possibility of health complications, and just plain old feeling awful. That’s why it’s essential to ward off the very real threat of colds, flu, and other scary winter germs lurking on every doorknob, in every public bathroom, and on every grab-rail of your morning train to work.
Each winter, these infections put millions of people out of commission, cost employers more than $20 billion in paid sick days, and send more than 200,000 sufferers to the hospital. So how do you protect yourself? We’ve compiled a list of exactly what you need—and what you should avoid—to stay healthy during cold and flu season. These ideas made the cut not because they have fancy names or pack 400% of your daily vitamin allowances, but because they’re safe, they’ve proven their worth in clinical studies, and our trusted experts recommend them. (Want to prevent winter weight gain?
Get a flu shot.
An influenza vaccination can reduce the risk of flu illness by 50 to 60% in the general population and can decrease the severity and side effects if you get sick. So roll up your sleeve—the government says that this year there will be plenty to go around; the feds recommend flu shots for everyone ages 6 months and older.
The quadrivalent vaccine , inoculates against four different viruses and may offer better protection than the trivalent shot, which protects against three viruses. The best time to get inoculated is in October or November, a few weeks before flu season begins to peak,
Stock up on pens.
Cold and flu germs are easily passed through hand-to-hand contact, says Schachter, so any way you can avoid touching public objects—such as the communal pen at the bank—will cut your risk. Having your own supply of dime-a-dozen plastic ballpoints might just keep you from picking up a virus.
Buy plenty of hand sanitizer.
When researchers from Children’s Hospital in Boston studied 292 families for 5 months, they found that those who carried hand sanitizer with them had 59% fewer cases of stomach bugs than nonusers. That’s because, when used correctly—squirt out enough gel so your hands still feel damp after rubbing together for 10 to 15 seconds—these products nearly eliminate germs.
A bottle stashed in your purse (and in your husband’s briefcase and the kids’ book bags) is an excellent alternative to washing if you’ve just shaken a bunch of hands and can’t get to a sink;
Join a club.
You know that friendships counteract the harmful effects of stress hormones, but new research says the more friends you have, the healthier you’ll be. Carnegie Mellon doctors gave 83 college freshmen an influenza vaccine and found that those with larger social networks produced more flu-fighting antibodies than those who hung out in smaller groups. Students who reported feeling lonely produced fewer antibodies, as well. Start a book group or cultivate group-friendly hobbies.
A constructive argument with your spouse can actually increase immunity, say UCLA researchers. They asked 41 happy couples to discuss a problem in their marriage for 15 minutes. The researchers detected surges in blood pressure, heart rate, and immune-related white blood cells, all of which were similar to the benefits seen with moderate exercise. But you still have to play nice: Couples who frequently use sarcasm, insults, and put-downs have fewer virus-fighting natural killer cells, have higher levels of stress hormones, and take up to 40% longer to recover from injuries than those who manage to stay positive and affectionate during their quarrels.
Challenging situations can work to your advantage: “When we’re facing adversity, we become hyperalert and our bodies guard themselves against enemies—whether that’s a predator or a virus,” says Monika Fleshner, PhD, an associate professor of neuroimmunophysiology at the University of Colorado at Boulder.So, even though unresolved stress can make you sick by suppressing immunity, raising blood pressure, and increasing your risk of heart disease, the ups and downs of everyday life, such as working toward a deadline or a promotion, will actually provide a health boost. The best prescription is to set your sights on a reachable target, says Fleshner. At the beginning of each week, give yourself at least one challenge at your job that you’ll aim to accomplish by Friday.
Sign up for a rubdown.
Massage therapy has been shown to improve immune function and energy levels in cancer patients. In a 500-person review study, massage lowered cortisol levels by up to 53%. Experts believe this boost can extend even to those who are simply dealing with the daily pressures of life. A weekly kneading, whether it’s a professional massage or simply a back rub from your significant other, can also increase serotonin and dopamine, mood boosters that may help protect your immunity, as well.
Take a daily multivitamin.
Look for one with 100% of the recommended daily values of vitamins A, B6, B12, C, and D and the minerals chromium, copper, folic acid, selenium, calcium, and zinc. Take your multi during a meal that contains a bit of fat so you can absorb the nutrients better; a glass of water will help the pill dissolve.
This Chinese root—pills are available in health food stores—has a long track record as an immunity booster. Research suggests that it stimulates the bone marrow to produce more disease-fighting white blood cells, which in turn produce antibodies and interferon, an antiviral protein.
In a Chinese study, 3 to 4 months of astragalus injections raised lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) activity by up to 45% in people who had a virus that can cause meningitis and heart inflammation. Other studies suggest astragalus’s immune-stimulating compounds are also active when taken orally. To maintain disease-fighting levels of the herb in your system, use it for at least 3 months (up to 2 years at a time) for best results. Take two 500 mg capsules of dried astragalus root, 3 times each day.
University of South Carolina researchers discovered that men who got in 3 hours a day of moderate activity (the equivalent of walking briskly, climbing stairs, or playing tennis) were 35% less likely to catch a cold, compared with those who did only 1 hour. The good news? You may not have to breathe hard every day: UCLA researchers have found that tai chi, the Chinese art of slow movements, meditation, and breathing, decreases the release of catecholamine, a neurotransmitter that dampens the immune system; in one study, 3 sessions a week for 4 months enhanced immune cell function by 45% in adults with shingles.
Wash your hands—a lot.
Researchers from the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego saw a decrease in respiratory illness of 45% from the previous year among 45,000 recruits who had been instructed to wash their hands at least 5 times a day (soap dispensers were installed, and the students were lectured monthly on the importance of hand washing).
Similar results would be likely in schools, homes, and workplaces where regular hand washing is adopted, says William Schaffner, MD, chair of the preventive medicine department at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. “I’m not talking about just before dinner,” he adds. “We have a rule in my house: Anytime you walk in the door, you hang your coat and march to the sink to wash your hands.” Such frequency may not be necessary for all families, but experts agree that simple soap-and-water hand washing is an easy and effective way to stay healthy year-round.
Getting enough sleep is the most important thing to do this season, because any other precautions you take against cold or flu—the right food, supplements, even vaccinations—won’t offer the same protection if your body’s too tired to use them properly.University of Chicago researchers found that men who had slept only 4 hours a night for 1 week produced only half the amount of flu-fighting antibodies in their blood), compared with those who slept 7 1/2 to 8 1/2 hours
If a viral outbreak hits your community, says Schaffner, the best thing you can do is avoid crowds. “When you read about it in the paper or see it on the news, that’s the time to rent a movie and watch it at home, instead of going out to the theater.” To find out if the flu is headed to your state, check out the CDC’s flu map, updated weekly.
At the first sign of symptoms, zinc may help prevent or lessen the duration of a cold; it also helps when used shortly after possible exposure to the virus (a plane trip or a visit to a sick friend). Schachter uses it just before he flies because zinc has consistently positive study results. Taken as a lozenge, zinc releases ions that prevent the common cold virus from maturing and attaching to airways. Choose zinc gluconate or zinc acetate without flavoring agents such as citric and tartaric acids—they appear to stunt its preventive powers. Take it only once or twice a day for a week at a time.
Get an Rx.
If you feel the flu’s aches and fatigue coming on, ask your doctor about an antiviral medication such as Tamiflu or Relenza. Both are 60 to 90% effective if they are taken within 48 hours of exposure but useless before or after that window. Some doctors may prescribe the drugs over the phone, but see yours in person first; it’s important to distinguish the flu from the common cold to avoid paying for—or experiencing side effects from—unnecessary medications.
Medicate at night
Don’t let your cold symptoms keep you from getting a healing night’s sleep. Numerous medications for colds are available without a prescription. Some treat specific symptoms. Others, like NyQuil and Contac, contain a combination of drugs—plus alcohol, in some cases—aimed at treating a wide range of symptoms. These combination drugs, however, can have many uncomfortable side effects, such as nausea and drowsiness, says Van Ert. “I recommend taking these at night, since you won’t feel the side effects while you’re sleeping.” If you need to be on medications during the day, he suggests using those that treat just the symptoms you’re experiencing. Be sure to follow the instructions carefully, he advises. Here’s what to reach for:
Aspirin or acetaminophen.
To stop sneezing and dry up your runny nose and watery eyes, take an antihistamine, which blocks your body’s release of histamine, a chemical that causes these symptoms. Look for products, like Chlor-Trimeton, that are available over-the-counter, advises Diane Casdorph, BS, PharmD, a clinical assistant professor in the department of clinical pharmacy at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy in Morgantown. Warning: Antihistamines frequently cause drowsiness, so save these for bedtime or for when you won’t be driving or doing anything that requires quick reactions. If drowsiness is a problem, talk with your doctor about nondrowsy antihistamines, which are available by prescription.
First, check your medicine cabinet and make sure you aren’t taking an old product that contains phenylpropanolamine, which was voluntarily withdrawn by manufacturers when the FDA warned that it was associated with an increased risk of stroke, especially in women. Products currently on the market that do not contain phenylpropanolamine include Sudafed, Actifed, Dristan, and Contac. Before taking a nonprescription antihistamine or decongestant, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
Nasal sprays and drops
Afrin and Neo-Synephrine, are also effective decongestants. But they shouldn’t be used for longer than 3 days, says Peters. Overuse can result in a “rebound effect,” meaning your nose becomes more congested than ever, requiring more medication.
To relieve a cough, try cough drops and syrups . Look for a product that contains cough-suppressing antitussives such as dextromethorphan, says Casdorph. These include Vicks cough drops and Robitussin DM cough syrup, which also contains an expectorant to loosen phlegm.
Can also combat coughs. Many of them contain topical anesthetics that slightly numb your sore throat, says Van Ert, which relieves your need to cough. Sucrets, Cepacol, and Cepastat sore throat decongestant lozenges are among them.
Menthol or camphor rubs
Have a soothing, cooling effect and may relieve congestion and help you breathe more easily, especially at bedtime. Apply Vicks VapoRub or a similar product to your bare chest, cover up, and get a good night’s sleep,