At a glance......
- 1 Pathophysiology
- 1.1 3. Age 19 to 39 years
- 1.2 4. Age 40 to 64 years
- 1.3 Causes: Secondary Hypertension in age <18 years old
- 1.4 Risk Factor of Hypertension
- 1.5 Risk Group B – Moderate Cardiovascular Risk
- 1.6 Risk Group C -High Cardiovascular Risk
- 2 Symptoms of Hypertension
- 2.0.1 Criteria: Hypertension in Adults
- 2.0.2 Criteria: Hypertension in Children and Adolescents (based on age, height, gender over at least 3 values)
- 2.0.3 Criteria: Hypertension in Adolescents
- 2.0.4 Criteria: Hypertension in Children
- 2.0.5 Exam: Vitals
- 2.0.6 Exam: Head
- 2.0.7 Exam: Neck
- 2.0.8 Exam: Chest
- 2.0.9 Exam: Cardiovascular
- 2.0.10 Exam: Abdomen
- 2.0.11 Exam: Genitourinary
- 2.0.12 Exam: Peripheral Vascular Disease
- 2.0.13 Exam: Neurologic
- 2.0.14 Exam: Skin
- 3 Treatment
- 4 Future Treatment Options
- 5 Starting hypertension treatment
- 6 Natural/Ayurvedic & Unani Remedies High Blood Pressure
- 6.1 Garlic
- 6.2 Carrots
- 6.3 Tomatoes
- 6.4 Celery
- 6.5 Beets & Radishes
- 6.6 Sesame
- 6.7 Ginger
- 6.8 Coconut Water
- 6.9 Cayenne Pepper (Capsaicin)
- 6.10 Dark Chocolate (Caca0)
- 6.11 Cardamom
- 6.12 Hibiscus Tea
- 6.13 Hawthorn
- 6.14 Cat’s Claw
- 6.15 Mistletoe
- 6.16 Turmeric (Curcumin)
- 6.17 Omega-3 (Fatty Acids)
- 6.18 Vitamin D
- 6.19 CoQ10
- 6.20 Relax & Listen to (Classical) Music
- 6.21 Exercise – Get Walking
- 7 Homeopathic Remedies to Lower Blood Pressure
- 8 References
Hypertension is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.
Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/90 or 140/90 mmHg. Different numbers apply to children. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement.
Hypertension is a chronic elevation of blood pressure that, in the long-term, causes end-organ damage and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure is the product of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. It follows that patients with arterial hypertension may have an increase in cardiac output, an increase in systemic vascular resistance, or both. In the younger age group, the cardiac output is often elevated, while in older patients increased systemic vascular resistance and increased the stiffness of the vasculature play a dominant role. The vascular tone may be elevated because of increased α-adrenoceptor stimulation or increased release of peptides such as angiotensin or endothelins. The final pathway is an increase in cytosolic calcium in vascular smooth muscle causing vasoconstriction. Several growth factors, including angiotensin and endothelins, cause an increase in vascular smooth muscle mass termed vascular remodeling. Both an increase in systemic vascular resistance and an increase in vascular stiffness augment the load imposed on the left ventricle; this induces left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
- medical and family history
- physical examination
- ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the blood vessels in the eye
- chest x-ray
- electrocardiograph (ECG)
- blood and urine tests.
Lifestyle changes are important for both treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, and they can be as effective as a drug treatment. These lifestyle changes can also have wider benefits for heart health and overall health. So the first choice is diuretics. It helps the kidneys eliminate excess salt and water from the body’s tissues and blood.
- ethacrynic acid
- hydrochlorothiazide and chlorothiazide
Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers block the entry of calcium into muscle cells in artery walls.
JNC8 recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide-type diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists for all patients regardless of age or race.
ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.
A systematic review of 63 trials with over 35,000 participants indicated ACE inhibitors significantly reduced doubling of serum creatinine levels compared to other drugs (ARBs, α blockers, β blockers, etc.), and the authors suggested this as the first line of defense. The AASK trial showed that ACE inhibitors are more effective at slowing down the decline of kidney function compared to calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. As such, ACE inhibitors should be the drug treatment of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of race or diabetic status.
ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin II receptor antagonists) – should not be a first-line treatment for black hypertensives without chronic kidney disease. Results from the ALLHAT trial showed that thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blockers were both more effective as monotherapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes compared to ACE inhibitors for this subgroup. Furthermore, ACE inhibitors were less effective in reducing blood pressure and had a 51% higher risk of stroke in black hypertensives when used as initial therapy compared to a calcium channel blocker. There are fixed-dose combination drugs, such as ACE inhibitor and thiazide combinations.
Notable side effects of ACE inhibitors include dry cough, hyperkalemia, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, loss of taste and a risk for angioedema.
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors.
Whether angiotensin receptor blockers may or may not increase the risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack) was announced in BMJ and was debated in 2006 in the medical journal of the American Heart Association. To date, there is no consensus on whether ARBs have a tendency to increase MI, but there is also no substantive evidence to indicate that ARBs are able to reduce MI.
In the VALUE trial, the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan produced a statistically significant 19% (p=0.02) relative increase in the prespecified secondary endpoint of myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal) compared with amlodipine.
The CHARM-alternative trial showed a significant +52% (p=0.025) increase in myocardial infarction with candesartan (versus placebo) despite a reduction in blood pressure.
Indeed, as a consequence of AT1 blockade, ARBs increase Angiotensin II levels several-fold above baseline by uncoupling a negative-feedback loop. Increased levels of circulating Angiotensin II result in unopposed stimulation of the AT2 receptors, which are, in addition, upregulated. Unfortunately, recent data suggest that AT2 receptor stimulation may be less beneficial than previously proposed and may even be harmful under certain circumstances through the mediation of growth promotion, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, as well as proatherogenic and proinflammatory effects.
Adrenergic receptor antagonists
Mixed Alpha + Beta-blockers
Despite lowering blood pressure, alpha-blockers have significantly poorer endpoint outcomes than other antihypertensives and are no longer recommended as a first-line choice in the treatment of hypertension. However, they may be useful for some men with symptoms of prostate disease.
Vasodilators act directly on the smooth muscle of arteries to relax their walls so blood can move more easily through them; they are only used in hypertensive emergencies or when other drugs have failed, and even so are rarely given alone.
Sodium nitroprusside, a very potent, short-acting vasodilator, is most commonly used for the quick, temporary reduction of blood pressure in emergencies (such as malignant hypertension or aortic dissection). Hydralazine and its derivatives are also used in the treatment of severe hypertension, although they should be avoided in emergencies. They are no longer indicated as first-line therapy for high blood pressure due to side effects and safety concerns, but hydralazine remains a drug of choice in gestational hypertension.
Although controversial over this off-label purpose, benzodiazepines may play a role in lowering blood pressure. They work as an agonist of the GABA-a receptors in the brain, thus slowing down neurotransmission and dilating blood vessels. GABA is an abbreviation for gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter among others (glycine, adenosine, etc.) GABA-a receptors are ion channels that are the primary target for benzodiazepines. When an agonist binds to this receptor site, the protein channel opens, allowing negative chloride ions entering the channel and penetrating the voltage-gated ion site. Thus, giving negative feedback in neurotransmission and easing stress, anxiety and tension in patients that can be associated with elevated blood pressure. In addition to GABA, benzodiazepines inhibit the re-uptake of a nucleoside chemical called Adenosine, which serves as an inhibitory chemical mentioned above. It also serves as a coronary vasodilator, allowing the cardiac muscle to relax and dilating cardiac arteries. However, long-term use of benzodiazepines are associated with dependence and tolerance, which is likely the result of GABA-a receptor downregulation. Therefore, withdrawal symptoms include hypertension, even in healthy individuals
Renin comes one level higher than angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin system. Inhibitors of renin can therefore effectively reduce hypertension. Aliskiren (developed by Novartis) is a renin inhibitor which has been approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of hypertension.
Aldosterone receptor antagonists
Aldosterone receptor antagonists
Aldosterone receptor antagonists are not recommended as first-line agents for blood pressure, but spironolactone and eplerenone are both used in the treatment of heart failure and resistant hypertension.
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists
Central alpha agonists lower blood pressure by stimulating alpha-receptors in the brain which open peripheral arteries easing blood flow. These alpha 2 receptors are known as autoreceptors which provide negative feedback in neurotransmission (in this case, the vasoconstriction effects of adrenaline). Central alpha agonists, such as clonidine, are usually prescribed when all other anti-hypertensive medications have failed. For treating hypertension, these drugs are usually administered in combination with a diuretic.
Adverse effects of this class of drugs include sedation, drying of the nasal mucosa and rebound hypertension.
Some indirect anti-adrenergic are rarely used in treatment-resistant hypertension
- guanethidine – replaces norepinephrine in vesicles, decreasing its tonic release
- mecamylamine – antinicotinic and ganglion blocker
- reserpine – indirect via irreversible VMAT inhibition
For the most resistant and severe disease, oral minoxidil (Loniten) in combination with diuretic and β-blocker or another sympathetic nervous system suppressant may be used.
Endothelin receptor blockers
Bosentan belongs to a new class of drug and works by blocking the receptors of the hormone endothelin. It is specifically indicated only for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.
Future Treatment Options
Blood pressure vaccines
Blood pressure vaccinations are being trialed and may become a treatment option for high blood pressure in the future. CYT006-AngQb was only moderately successful in studies, but similar vaccines are being investigated.
Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors
This group of drugs works to block certain chemical messengers inside the brain, which keeps the smooth muscles from getting the message to constrict. These medications are generally used only if other medications aren’t effective. They include:
- guanadrel (Hylorel)
- guanethidine monosulfate (Ismelin)
- reserpine (Serpasil)
Vasodilators relax the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, especially small arteries (arterioles). This widens the blood vessels and allows blood to flow through them more easily. Blood pressure falls as a result. Hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline) and minoxidil (Loniten) are examples of these.
Starting hypertension treatment
Consider treating immediately if BP in the clinic is ≥180/110 mm Hg; otherwise, consider after results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) or home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), blood tests and cardiovascular risk assessment are available.
Diagnose hypertension if the average of ABPM or HBPM readings is ≥135/85 mm Hg, (ignore first-day readings and average the rest – see separate Hypertension article).
- Stage 1 hypertension – clinic readings ≥140/90 mm Hg and ABPM/HBPM ≥135/85 mm Hg.
- Stage 2 hypertension – clinic readings ≥160/100 mm Hg and ABPM/HBPM ≥150/95 mm Hg.
Hypertension treatment should be commenced in people aged under 80 years with stage 1 hypertension plus signs of end-organ damage (known cardiovascular or renal disease), or with diabetes mellitus or a 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥20%. Treatment in mild hypertension without target-organ damage or cardiovascular risk remains contentious.
Natural/Ayurvedic & Unani Remedies High Blood Pressure
- Garlic is gaining more and more popularity for its use in lowering high blood pressure. This herb also has blood-thinning properties which makes it great for improving overall cardiac health.
- Garlic is also a natural diuretic — meaning it forces out excess sodium and water from the body, and into your urine. This effect takes the pressure off of an overworked heart and decreases blood pressure.
Method: If the taste of garlic is too strong for you, popular odorless garlic supplements are also available.
- If you cannot handle eating the entire clove raw, hold a slice of garlic in your mouth and try sucking on the juices for 15 minutes.
- You can also finely mince 1-2 cloves of garlic, mix it into a glass of water, and drink it.
- Another method is to take the finely minced pieces, put it on a piece of fruit, and cover it with honey.
- Tip — try adding a few cloves to your smoothies.
- Carrots contain high levels of antioxidants beta-carotene, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C. Antioxidants reduce the amount of cancer-causing free radicals in the body. They also protect against damage to blood vessels and cellular death.
- Carrots are also high in the electrolyte, potassium. Potassium is great at keeping the fluid within the body balanced and normalizing blood pressure. Potassium positively counteracts the effects of sodium. Consumed in large amounts, sodium can negatively affect blood pressure.
Method: Drink 1-3 glasses of carrot juice a day. Make sure to buy organic and do not add any sugar.
- Tomatoes contain beta-carotene, vitamin E, potassium, and antioxidants — which are all great at lowering high blood pressure.
- Tomatoes also contain lycopene, a chemical that gives it its rich red color. Lycopene has antioxidant effects that lowers bad cholesterol (LDL) and prevents the build-up of fatty deposits in arteries (atherosclerosis). These buildups can lead to cardiovascular disease.
- Eat a cup of fresh tomatoes, tomato sauce, or blended tomato juice, everyday. If you do not like the taste of tomatoes, try taking lycopene supplements. Avoid commercial tomato sauce, which contain high levels of sodium.
- Celery seeds are widely used in the Chinese culture for lowering blood pressure. Specifically, the Chinese use celery seeds to lower high blood pressure of the liver.
- Celery is a fibrous vegetable that also acts as a diuretic. Diuretics flush out excess water from the heart and the body. This causes a decrease in blood pressure.
- Pomegranates not only are dense in nutrients but are also high in antioxidants — specifically in tannins and anthocyanins. Pomegranates are fruits that have a hard shell and edible juicy red seeds.
- Pomegranates contain phytochemicals, flavonoids, polyphenols, and punicalagin. Phytochemicals naturally occur in plant foods that act as antioxidants and prevent damage to our cells. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenols fight against heart disease and cancers.
- Punicalagin is a compound that is mostly responsible for the health benefits in pomegranates. It improves the functions of the heart and blood vessels, lowers bad (LDL) cholesterol, raises good (HDL) cholesterol, lowers high blood pressure, and reverses the effects of arterial blockage (atherosclerosis).
Pomegranates contain more antioxidants than red wine, berries, or even green tea.
Method: Add pomegranate seeds to your salad, or juice the seeds into a tasty drink.
Method: Mix celery seeds into your tea, your cooking, or drink fresh celery juice — 3 times a day.
Beets & Radishes
- Beets & radishes are under-appreciated and overcooked vegetables. Both beets and radishes are high in nitrates, which are great at lowering high blood pressure, by improving vasodilation.
- Nitrates change into vasodilator nitric oxide after being ingested. Nitric acid dilates blood vessels, regulates blood pressure, decreases endothelial inflammation, and platelet aggregation.
- Both the leaves and the roots of the radish lowers elevated blood pressures.
- Juice made out of beets or radishes is the best form of the vegetables, in lowering blood pressure. Drink a glass of blended beets or radishes juice, daily. Also, add fresh beets and radishes to any dish!
- Sesame oil contains omega-6s, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Vitamin E, and sesamin, which are great for lowering blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
- Sesamin is a lignan compound in sesame oil that has been shown to reduce blood pressure levels. Sesame lignans reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the body.
- PUFA and sesamin work together to relax the arterial wall and reduce blood pressure.
Method: Incorporate 1 ounce of sesame seeds or oil into your daily cooking, for at least 2 months.
- Ginger has been used for centuries in Asian and Indian cultures, especially for its numerous health benefits. Ginger is great for preventing heart conditions, such as lowering blood pressure, decreasing cholesterol, and preventing blood clots.
- Ginger decreases bad cholesterol (Low-Density Lipoproteins), by preventing plaque build-up on arterial walls, that can lead to increased blood pressure.
Method: Add fresh ginger to your smoothies and juices, and try to incorporate ginger into your daily cooking.
- Coconut water is filled with potassium and magnesium electrolytes, which are good for the heart muscle.
- Coconut water lowers blood pressure by acting as a potassium-sparing diuretic. This removes the excess water from the body while retaining vital potassium. Coconut water is best when it is organic and bottled in its raw form.
- Drink 8 ounces of organic coconut water, 1-3 times a day. The effects are weight-based, so if you are on the heavier side, drink more coconut water (3 times a day).
Cayenne Pepper (Capsaicin)
- Cayenne pepper is a known vasodilator. It quickly expands blood vessels, which improves the flow of blood. Faster and more efficient flow takes the pressure off of the arteries, thus decreasing your blood pressure. Capsaicin is one of the major ingredients in red peppers. The spicier the pepper, the more capsaicin it contains.
- Cayenne pepper helps to create new red blood cells, improves blood structure, and aids in detoxing the blood. During detoxification, cayenne pepper is thought to also remove some plaque build-up off of the arterial walls. Cayenne pepper is also known to stop bleeding fast. If you have a cut, try sprinkling some cayenne pepper over it.
- The recommended dosage is 1 teaspoon of organic cayenne pepper a day, and slowly work your way up to one teaspoon, 3 times a day. If the taste is too spicy for you, try taking capsaicin supplements.
Dark Chocolate (Caca0)
- Dark chocolate is made from the seeds of the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) and is loaded with antioxidants (cancer-fighting) — including polyphenols, flavonoids, catechins.
- The cocoa tree seeds contain flavonoids, but more importantly, it is exceptionally high in its levels of flavanols.
- Flavanols (Flavan-3-ol) are phytonutrients, which is known as plant-based nutrients. Not many other foods come close to the number of flavanols that are found in cocoa seeds.
- Activated nitric oxide dilates blood vessels, making it easier for the blood to circulate throughout the body. NO is absolutely necessary for maintaining a healthy body.
- By keeping the blood vessels open, it allows the blood to efficiently carry vital oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Dilated blood vessels decrease stress in the body. This in turn, lowers blood pressure and reduces the risk of stroke or a heart attack.
- Make sure your dark chocolates or cocoa powders contain at least 50-80% of cocoa to reap the benefits of the flavanols. Just remember that the more cocoa content your chocolate contains, the more nutritious it is.
- Cardamom is a spice that has been used for thousands of years in Ayurveda medicine. It is widely used for cardiac disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, renal problems, heartburn, and respiratory disorders.
- Cardamom is also known for its antioxidant, gastroprotective, anti-spasmodic, antibacterial, anti-platelet aggregation, and anti-cancer properties.
- Cardamom causes vasodilation (dilation of blood vessels) and allows blood to flow more easily, thus lowering blood pressure.
- Mix 1 teaspoon of cardamom powder with raw organic honey in a cup of warm filtered water. Drink twice a day.
- Hibiscus is widely used around the world to manage blood pressure.
- Hibiscus acts as a diuretic and flushes out all the excess fluid that is in your heart and in your tissues. This decreases the pressure on the arterial walls. Vessel walls are relaxed and blood volume is decreased, thus lowering your blood pressure.
- A study performed in 2008 shows that 3 cups of hibiscus tea daily lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 7 mm Hg, after only 6 weeks.
- Seep dried hibiscus leaves into a cup of hot filtered water. Add raw organic honey and lemon for taste
- For centuries, hawthorn has been used for cardiac, circulatory, and respiratory disorders. The berries of the plant has been specifically used to treat high blood pressure, irregular heartbeats, chest pain, atherosclerosis, and heart failure.
- Hawthorn also contains flavonoids, which are antioxidants that destroy free radicals. Flavonoids help dilate blood vessels, improve the flow of blood, and protect against blood vessel damage.
- Drink hawthorn tea 1-3 times a day.
- Cat’s claw (uncaria tomentosa) is a popular herb in China, South America, and Central America. It is widely used in China for the treatment of high blood pressure. Cat’s claw lowers blood pressure by inducing vasodilation. Dilated blood vessels allow the blood to flow more easily. It also acts as a mild diuretic and rids the body of harmful excess
- Activated NO dilates blood vessels, making it easier for the blood to circulate throughout the body.
- By keeping the blood vessels open, blood is able to efficiently carry vital oxygen and nutrients all over the body. Dilated blood vessels decrease stress in the body, ultimately lowering blood pressure and reduces the risk of stroke and heart attacks.
- A typical daily dose of cat’s claw is 350 milligrams. Cat’s claw tea is also a good alternative.
- Mistletoe is not the first thing that may come to one’s mind when thinking about lowering elevated blood pressures. There is a lot more to this plant than just being a beautiful holiday decoration.
- Mistletoe boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, and helps treat cancer and hepatitis. Mistletoe extracts contain an active compound called alkaloids. Alkaloids lower blood pressure by controlling nerve impulses along the heart and arterial walls. The actions of mistletoe are gradual but have a long-lasting effect on blood pressure.
- Mistletoe can be harmful and poisonous if consumed raw and unprocessed. Always consult with a doctor before taking mistletoe extracts, to avoid hypotension (below normal blood pressure).
- Curcumin is the main component of turmeric. Turmeric is one of the most studied spices in the world. It is known to significantly decrease inflammation throughout the body. By reducing inflammation, turmeric improves blood flow and improves cardiovascular function.
- Turmeric can help remove some of the plaque build-ups off arterial walls. Turmeric is also a natural blood thinner, which improves blood flow and thus, lowers blood pressure.
- Add turmeric powder to your favorite tea, and flavor it with ginger and raw organic honey. Turmeric capsules or tinctures are also available.
Omega-3 (Fatty Acids)
- Omega-3 is great at lowering blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Fish oil contains Essential Fatty Acids (EFA). EFAs are polyunsaturated fats derived from linolenic (Omega-3), linoleic (Omega-6), and oleic acids. These are essential fats, meaning that our bodies cannot produce them on its own. It is crucial that EFAs are obtained from our diet.
- The balanced ratio that is needed by our bodies of Omega-6 and Omega-3 is between 2:1-4:1. Due to the American diet, our ratios have become 10:1-30:1. Unfortunately, a large chunk of the population is lacking in Omega-3.
- Omega-3 is important for decreasing inflammation throughout the body. Decreasing inflammation helps prevent heart disease, autoimmune diseases, stroke, and mental illnesses (inflammation of the brain). It is also well-known that Omega-3s are effective at fighting depression and anger.
- Fatty fish such as salmon, herring, trout, krill, canned tuna, and sardines contain a good amount of Omega-3. The daily recommended dose of Omega-3 is 1,000 milligrams.
- Vitamin D is a “sun vitamin” that regulates over 200 genes. It is also responsible for proper cell growth and development. Usually, 50-90% of vitamin D is absorbed by our bodies, directly from the sun. The remainder comes from our diet. Natural sources of Vitamin D can be found in eggs, fatty fish, fortified dairy and meats.
- Since people are spending less and less time outdoors, vitamin D deficiency is on the rise and is affecting people worldwide.
- A study published in 2014 shows that Vitamin D supplementation helps to lower high blood pressure. Vitamin D suppresses the hormone renin, which is similar to the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. ACE inhibitors are popularly prescribed antihypertensives.
- If you are going to take supplements, make sure to get D3 (cholecalciferol), and not D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D3 is the active form that our bodies can use. The recommended daily dose of Vitamin D3 is 2,000 IU.
- CoQ10 is a naturally occurring enzyme. It contains antioxidants that are good for maintaining cardiac health.
- CoQ10 has been shown to decrease blood pressure and reduces the thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy).
- There are no known side effects of CoQ10 since it naturally occurs in the body.
- According to Mayo Clinic, for the treatment of hypertension, take 60-360 milligrams daily for 8-12 weeks.
- Lavender is a popular fragrance that is widely used as a relaxer of the mind, body and soul. This herb is also known to help decrease your blood pressure and heart rate.
- One study shows that aromatherapy with certain essential oils can lower blood pressure. Effective oils include blends of lavender, ylanglang, and bergamot. The recommended usage is once daily, for 4-weeks.
- Use lavender essential oils, or incorporate lavender into your baked foods and daily cooking.
Relax & Listen to (Classical) Music
- Surprisingly, stress plays a huge role in cardiovascular disease.
- Music has a calming effect and can be used as stress-relieving therapy. Music subconsciously affects our mood. The right type of music can have a positively calming effect and has been proven to lower blood pressure.
- Listening to music for at least 30-minutes a day can lower blood pressure, slow down heart rate, and decrease anxiety.
- Set aside sometime every day to just relax and listen to some Giuseppe Verdi or Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony.
Exercise – Get Walking
- Being overweight puts extra pressure on your arterial walls and forces your heart to work harder 24/7. It also puts you at risk for developing other diseases, such as atherosclerosis, which can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and stroke. A sedentary lifestyle can increase your risk of having high blood pressure by 30 percent. Walking is the best exercise you can do for your entire body.
- One study shows that light exercising (brisk walking or light jogging) aids in decreasing elevated blood pressure. Walking daily can also help you to go to sleep more easily, and stay asleep.
Homeopathic Remedies to Lower Blood Pressure
- Belladonna – While good for throbbing and violent conditions that start suddenly, it can be useful for high blood pressure as well. It’s one of the main remedies in a hypertensive crisis, with flushes of heat, pounding headache, an impending stroke.
- Glonoinum – This one is helpful for high blood pressure that may be accompanied by a pulsating, congestive headache that worsens in the sun. A headache is worse from the sun. Your face is flushed. Along with hypertension, you may have angina that causes a hot sensation in the chest.
- Nux Vomica – The candidates for Nux are easily angered or upset, and compulsive workaholics. They are chilly in body temperature and tend to complain of gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, nausea, etc.). They crave stimulants, such as drugs, caffeine or alcohol. This character profile paves the way toward high blood pressure.
- Natrum Mur – This is a salty remedy that helps symptoms caused by grief. High blood pressure can return following an emotional event, like the death of a spouse. These people tend not to like sympathy and are emotionally closed off.
- Baryta Carbonica – Used for hypertension in people who are very shy and have difficulty concentrating. Symptoms are worse when lying on the left side. They can include strong stomach pain that recedes when lying on the stomach.
- Aurum – A common recommendation for people with hypertension triggered by stress endured over the long term. It’s like it’s burning inside them; this feeling is often linked to their job.
- Lachesis – This remedy is good for high blood pressure where one’s face is flushed and whose behavior is overactive, and who overall appears primed to explode one day.
Healthy diet to Prevent Hypertension
Advice from NICE includes
- Weight reduction should be suggested if necessary, to maintain an ideal body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9 kg/m. Offer a diet sheet and/or dietetic appointment. Dietary self-help (eg, dieting clubs, for which there may be local referral options) may be appropriate. Encourage physical activity alongside dietary changes. NICE guidelines for obesity make further recommendations about pharmaceutical and surgical options where appropriate.
- Use of wholegrain varieties of starchy food (eg, rice, pasta, bread) where possible.
- Reduction of saturated fats, and increasing monounsaturated fats, using olive or rapeseed oils and spreads.
- Reduction in sugar intake and that of foods containing refined sugars.
- Eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.
- Eating at least two portions of fish per week, including a portion of oily fish.
- Eating at least 4-5 portions of unsalted nuts, seeds, and legumes per week
- Reducing any excessive caffeine consumption.
- Low dietary salt
- Keeping alcohol within current national recommended levels. (Currently, no more than 14 units per week for men and women, spread through the week, with at least two days alcohol-free.)
- Calcium, magnesium or potassium supplements are not recommended.