Serum Creatinine; Normal Value, Symptom, Treatments

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Serum creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. It is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Approximately 2% of the body’s creatine is converted to creatinine every day. It is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Serum creatinine (a blood measurement) is an important indicator of renal health because it is an easily measured byproduct of muscle metabolism that is excreted unchanged by the kidneys. Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the body’s immediate energy supply).

Creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver from the methylation of glycocyamine (guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine) by S-adenosyl methionine. It is then transported through blood to the other organs, muscle, and brain, where, through phosphorylation, it becomes the high-energy compound phosphocreatine.Creatine conversion to phosphocreatine is catalyzed by creatine kinase; spontaneous formation of creatinine occurs during the reaction.Creatinine is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular secretion. Little or no tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs.

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Creatinine levels chart

The creatinine levels in your body are usually dependent on the muscle mass, gender, age, and other health factors. They are often measured in milligrams per deciliter.
CATEGORYCREATININE LEVELS
Adult Males0.6 to 1.2 mg/dl
Adult Females0.5 to 1.1 mg/dl
Infants0.2 mg/dl
Individuals with only one kidney1.8 to 1.9 mg/dl

Normal results

Normal values can vary from laboratory to laboratory, but are generally in the following ranges:
  • Adult female: 0.5-1.1 mg/dL
  • Adult male: 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
  • Adolescent: 0.5-1.0 mg/dL
  • Child: 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
  • Infant: 0.2-0.4 mg/dL

Causes of high serum creatinine

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Kidney infections
  • Abnormal muscle breakdown resulting from rhabdomyolysis
  • Drugs like cimetidine
  • Consuming large amounts of dietary meat
  • Kidney damage or kidney failure
  • Kidney infection
  • Reduced blood flow to the kidneys
  • Dehydration
  • Certain drugs (for example,cimetidine ) can sometimes cause abnormally elevated creatinine levels.
  • Serum creatinine can also transiently increase after ingestion of a large amount of dietary meat; thus,nutrition can sometimes play a role in creatinine measurement.
  • Kidney infections,rhabdomyolysis (abnormal muscle breakdown) and urinary tract obstruction may also elevate creatinine levels.
  • Fever or Infection- which increase protein breakdown . Increased protein breakdown is a common feature of illness. Protein breakdown is stimulated by hormones (such as glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol) and inflammatory cytokines. Protein production on the other hand, is reduced by lowering growth hormone, insulin, and testosterone levels (R).
  • Inflammation or interval training – , which results in protein breakdown from muscle.
  • Dehydration or low water consumption – I use this as a measure of hydration in clients. BUN increases as blood volume decreases .
  • Stress -An inappropriate increase in the activation of the sympathetic, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone, and arginine–vasopressin systems elevate BUN , which often seen in heart failure .Cortisol will also increase protein breakdown and elevate BUN.
  • Gut bleeding -When upper GI bleeding occurs, the blood is digested to protein. This protein is transported to the liver, and metabolized to BUN .
  • Poor circulation, which results in lower blood flow to the kidneys and therefore less of an ability to clear the urea .
  • Thyroid abnormalities which result in abnormal kidney function hypothyroidism  and hyperthyroidism .
  • Glucocorticoids, Tetracyclines (except doxycycline) and other antianabolic drugs .
  • Lower growth hormone or IGF-1. IGF-1 and growth hormone inhibit urea synthesis .
  • Kidney disease or failure, and blockage of the urinary tract by a kidney stone .

Symptom of high serum creatinine

Symptoms while others usually develop symptoms like

  • Swelling or edema
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dehydration
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • changes in urination
  • high blood pressure
  • chest pains
  • muscle cramps
  • Confusion
  • Digestive problems like poor appetite, nausea and vomiting
  • Foamy urine
  • Blood urine
  • Skin problems like dry skin, yellow skin and itchy skin
  • Urine changes like frequent urination at night, decreased urine output and anuria
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Diagnosis

If your blood test reveals that you have high creatinine levels, you can undergo the following tests:

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen Test (BUN) – This test checks the functioning of your kidneys by measuring the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Too much or too little of urea nitrogen often hints at kidney problems.
  • Basic Metabolic Panel Test (BMP) – This is a combination of tests that assess the important body functions.
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Test (CMP) – This test is an ordered panel of 14 tests, which gives your doctor important information regarding the health of your kidneys, liver, electrolyte and acid/base balance, etc.

Causes of low serum creatinine

  • Low-protein diet, malnutrition or starvation
  • Impaired liver activity due to liver disease .
  • Genetic deficiency of urea cycle enzymes
  • Higher IGF-1 and growth hormone. These inhibit urea synthesis . Growth hormone-deficient children given human growth hormone have lower urea nitrogen and this is due to decreased urea synthesis .
  • Anabolic steroids, which decreases protein breakdown.
  • Overhydration, or drinking a lot of water.
  • Pregnancy (due to increased plasma volume)

Symptom of low serum creatinine

Symptoms of low creatinine will vary depending on the underlying condition but can include:

  • Low muscle mass: Lack of strength, difficulty exercising, a thin or frail body.
  • Liver disease: Inflamed liver, which may cause pain in the upper right-side of the abdomen, fatigue or nausea.
  • Diet-related: Feeling faint or dizzy, losing weight.

Home Remedies To Lower High Creatinine Levels

1. Apple Cider Vinegarwww.rxharun.com/Apple-Cider-Vinegar

  1. Add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a glass of warm water and mix well.
  2. Add some honey to this solution and consume daily.

2. Bitter Gourd

2. Bitter Gourd

Drink no more than half a cup of bitter gourd juice.

You must drink this juice once daily.

Cinnamon

3. CinnamonAdd cinnamon powder to any warm beverage or food and consume it.

You must do this once daily.

Pineappleswww.rxharun.com/eating-healthy-tips

Consume fresh pineapples.

How Often You Should Do This

Do this once daily.

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Green Tea

  1. Take a green tea bag and steep it in a cup of hot water for about 10 minutes.
  2. Allow it to cool for a while and then add some honey.
  3. Consume the tea.

Garlicwww.rxharun.com/Garlic

  1. Chew on the garlic cloves.
  2. Alternatively, you can add minced garlic to your salads and other foods.

Gingerwww.rxharun.com/ginger

  1. Add an inch of ginger to a cup of hot water and allow it to steep for at least 10 minutes.
  2. Add a little honey and consume immediately.

Cranberry Juice

8. Cranberry Juice

Drink a medium cup of cranberry juice daily.

How Often You Should Do This

Do this once daily.

Coconut Waterwww.rxharun.com/coconut water

Have a glass of tender coconut water.

How Often You Should Do This

You must drink this daily.

Oranges

10. Oranges

Drink orange juice.

Do this once daily.

Olive Oilwww.rxharun.com/Olive-Oil-For-Diarrhea

Add a tablespoon of olive oil to salad or pasta.

How Often You Should Do This

Do this once daily.

Apples

  1. Cut an apple and have it on a daily basis.
  2. You can also drink fresh apple juice, but make sure that you remove its toxic seeds.
How Often You Should Do This

You must consume an apple once daily.

Baking Soda

13. Baking Soda
  1. Add half a teaspoon of baking soda to a glass of warm water and mix well.
  2. Consume this.
How Often You Should Do This

You must drink this solution once daily.

Lemon Essential Oilwww.rxharun.com/Orange

  1. Add two drops of lemon essential oil to a glass of water.
  2. Mix well and consume it.
How Often You Should Do This

Consume this mixture twice daily.

Chamomile Tea

  1. Add chamomile herb to a cup of hot water.
  2. Allow it to steep for at least 10 minutes.
  3. Strain, add a little honey, and consume it.

Guava

16. Guava

Have a bowl of cut guavas.

How Often You Should Do This

You must eat guavas once daily.

 Onions

Add half an onion to your salads or daily diet.

How Often You Should Do This

You must do this daily.

Papaya

18. Papaya

Have freshly cut papayas or blend them with a little water and consume the juice.

How Often You Should Do This

Do this once daily.

Parsley

  1. Add a handful of parsley to water.
  2. Bring this to a boil in a saucepan and simmer for 5 minutes.
  3. Strain and allow the parsley tea to cool a bit.
How Often You Should Do This

Have 2 cups of parsley tea daily.

Vitamins

www.rxharun.com/Vitamins

 Vitamin C is one of the most significant vitamins that can help in lowering high creatinine levels. This is mainly due to its antioxidant properties, which help in detoxification of the kidneys.

References

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